• 1

    Kirby KA: “Definitions for Foot Orthoses,” in Foot and Lower Extremity Biomechanics II: Precision Intricast Newsletter, 1997–2002, p 7, Precision Intricast Inc, Payson, AZ. ,2002. .

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Bowker P: “The Biomechanics of Orthoses,” in Biomechanical Basis of Orthotic Management, ed by P Bowker, DN Condie, DL Bader, et al, p 27, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, England. ,1993. .

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Kirby KA: Emerging concepts in podiatric biomechanics. .Podiatry Today 19::36. ,2006. .

  • 4

    Petrofsky JS, Bweir S: Variable output foot sensors to provide pressure distribution on the foot during gait. .J Disabil 8::137. ,2002. .

  • 5

    Nicolopoulos CS, Anderson EG, Solomonidis SE, et al: Evaluation of the gait analysis FSCAN pressure system: clinical tool or toy?. The Foot 10::124. ,2000. .

  • 6

    Lord M: Spatial resolution in plantar pressure measurement. .Med Eng Phys 19::140. ,1997. .

  • 7

    McPoil TG, Cornwall MW, Yamada W: A comparison of two in-shoe plantar pressure measurement systems. .Lower Extrem 2::104. ,1995. .

  • 8

    Rose NE, Fewel LA, Cracchiolo A: A method for measuring foot pressures using a high resolution, computerized insole sensor: the effect of heel wedges on plantar pressure distribution and center of force. .Foot Ankle 13::263. ,1992. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Woodburn J, Helliwell PS: Observations on the F-Scan in-shoe pressure measuring system. .Clin Biomech 11::301. ,1996. .

  • 10

    Mueller MJ, Strube MJ: Generalizability of in-shoe peak pressure measures using the F-scan system. .Clin Biomech 11::159. ,1996. .

  • 11

    Fergenbaum MA, Stevenson JM, Morin E, et al: Assessment of pressure measurement systems on flat surfaces. American Society of Biomechanics conference archive. Available at: http://www.asbweb.org/conferences/2003/pdfs/268.pdf. Accessed September 29. ,2010. .

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Hsiao H, Guan J, Weatherly M: Accuracy and precision of two in-shoe pressure measurement systems. .Ergonomics 45::537. ,2002. .

  • 13

    Orlin MN, McPoil TG: Plantar pressure assessment. .Phys Ther 80::399. ,2000. .

  • 14

    Norkin CC, Levangie PK: “Posture,” in Joint Structure and Function: A Comprehensive Analysis, 2nd Ed, ed by CC Norkin, PK Levangie, p 419, FA Davis Co, Philadelphia. ,1992. .

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Fuller EA: Center of pressure and its theoretical relationship to foot pathology. .JAPMA 89::278. ,1999. .

  • 16

    Kirby KA: Subtalar joint axis location and rotational equilibrium theory of foot function. .JAPMA 91::465. ,2001. .

  • 17

    Spooner SK, Kirby KA: The subtalar joint axis locator: a preliminary report. .JAPMA 96::212. ,2006. .

  • 18

    Whiting WC, Zernicke RF: “Biomechanical Concepts,” in Biomechanics of Musculoskeletal Injury, ed by WC Whiting, RF Zernicke, p 41, Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL. ,1998. .

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Pham HT, Smakowski P: The F-Scan in management of diabetic patients with high risk for neuropathic ulceration. Available at: http://www.camatsystem.com/datablad/Bibliography-medicin/In-Shoe%20Plantar%20Pressure%20&%20Gait%20Analysis/269_Pham_The%20F-Scan%20in%20Management%20of%20Diabetic%20Patients.pdf. Accessed September 29. ,2010. .

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Lord M, Hosein R: A study of in-shoe plantar shear in patients with diabetic neuropathy. .Clin Biomech 15::278. ,2000. .

  • 21

    Perry JE, Hall JO, Davis BL: Simultaneous measurement of plantar pressure and shear forces in diabetic individuals. .Gait Posture 15::101. ,2002. .

  • 22

    Yavuz M, Tajaddini A, Botek G, et al: Temporal characteristics of plantar shear distribution: relevance to diabetic patients. .J Biomech 41::556. ,2008. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Lott DJ, Zou D, Mueller MJ: Pressure gradient and subsurface shear stress on the neuropathic forefoot. .Clin Biomech 23::342. ,2008. .

  • 24

    Tappin JW, Pollard J, Beckett EA: Method of measuring “shearing” forces on the sole of the foot. .Clin Phys Physiol Meas 1::83. ,1980. .

  • 25

    Laing P, Deogan H, Cogley D, et al: The development of the low profile Liverpool shear transducer. .Clin Phys Physiol Meas 13::115. ,1992. .

  • 26

    Lord M, Hosein R, Williams RB: A method for in-shoe shear stress measurement. .J Biomed Eng 14::181. ,1992. .

  • 27

    Akhlaghi F, Pepper MG: In-shoe biaxial shear force measurement: the Kent shear system. .Med Biol Eng Comput 34::315. ,1996. .

  • 28

    Lebar AM, Harris GF, Wertsch JJ, et al: An optoelectric plantar “shear” sensing transducer: design, validation, and preliminary subject tests. .IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng 4::310. ,1996. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Paton JS, Spooner SK: Effect of extrinsic rearfoot post design on the lateral-to-medial position and velocity of the center of pressure. .JAPMA 96::383. ,2006. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Van Gheluwe B, Dananberg HJ: Changes in plantar foot pressure with in-shoe varus or valgus wedging. .JAPMA 94::1. ,2004. .

  • 31

    Buis AW, Convery P: Calibration problems encountered while monitoring stump/socket interface pressures with force sensing resistors: techniques adopted to minimise inaccuracies. .Prosthet Orthot Int 21::179. ,1997. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Polliack AA, Sieh RC, Craig DD, et al: Scientific validation of two commercial pressure systems for prosthetic socket fit. .Prosthet Orthot Int 24::63. ,2000. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Fergenbaum M, Hadcock L, Stevenson J, et al: Pressure measurement applications for humans. Available at: http://www.xsensor.jp/data/comparative_research_report.pdf. Accessed September 29. ,2010. .

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Schrock L: The effect of surface curvature and a gel liner interface on performance properties of the Tekscan Socket System. Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/1853/14750. Accessed September 29. ,2010. .

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Cornwall MW, McPoil TG: The relationship between maximum plantar pressures and anterior-posterior shear during walking. .Lower Extrem 2::141. ,1995. .

  • 36

    Birke JA, Foto JG, Pfiefer LA: Effect of orthosis material hardness on walking pressure in high-risk diabetes patients. .J Prosthet Orthot 11::43. ,1999. .

  • 37

    McPoil TG, Cornwall MW: Effect of insole material on force and plantar pressures during walking. .JAPMA 82::412. ,1992. .

  • 38

    Nigg BM, Nurse MA, Stefanyshyn DJ: Shoe inserts and orthotics for sport and physical activities. .Med Sci Sports Exerc 31::S421. ,1999. .

  • 39

    McMahon TA, Greene P: The influence of track compliance on running. .J Biomech 12::893. ,1979. .

  • 40

    Spooner SK: Toward orthoses optimization: a finite element approach. Paper presented at: PFOLA 10th Annual International Conference on Foot Biomechanics & Orthotic Therapy, November 17. ,2007. , San Diego, CA.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 41

    Luo ZP, Berglund LJ, An KN: Validation of F-Scan pressure sensor system: a technical note. .J Rehabil Res Dev 35::186. ,1998. .

  • 42

    Kraus A, Odenwald S: “Determining Ground Reaction Forces Using a Pressure Distribution Measuring System,” in The Engineering of Sport 7, Vol 2, p 111, Springer, Paris. ,2008. .

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 43

    Sumiya T, Suzuki Y, Kasahara T, et al: Sensing stability and dynamic response of the F-Scan in-shoe sensing system: a technical note. .J Rehabil Res Dev 35::192. ,1998. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44

    Young CR: The F-SCAN system of foot pressure analysis. .Clin Podiatr Med Surg 10::455. ,1993. .

  • 45

    Dananberg HJ: Sagittal plane biomechanics. .JAPMA 90::47. ,2000. .

  • 46

    Williams BE, Yakel JD: Clinical uses of in-shoe pressure analysis in podiatric sports medicine. .JAPMA 97::49. ,2007. .

  • 47

    Razian MA, Pepper MG: Design, development, and characteristics of an in-shoe triaxial pressure measurement transducer utilizing a single element of piezoelectric copolymer film. .IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 11::288. ,2003. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

In-Shoe Pressure Measurement and Foot Orthosis Research

A Giant Leap Forward or a Step Too Far?

Simon K. Spooner Peninsula Podiatry, Plymouth, England.

Search for other papers by Simon K. Spooner in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD, BSc
,
David K. Smith FootHouse, Folkestone, England.

Search for other papers by David K. Smith in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 MSc
, and
Kevin A. Kirby Department of Applied Biomechanics, California School of Podiatric Medicine at Samuel Merritt College, Oakland, CA.

Search for other papers by Kevin A. Kirby in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DPM

Foot orthoses are believed to exert their therapeutic effect on the human locomotor apparatus by altering the location, magnitude, and temporal patterns of ground reaction forces acting on the plantar foot during weightbearing activities. In-shoe pressure-measurement systems are increasingly being used by clinicians and researchers to assess kinetic changes at the foot-orthosis interface to better understand the function of foot orthoses and to derive more efficacious treatments for many painful foot and lower-extremity abnormalities. This article explores how the inherent three-dimensional surface topography and load-deformation characteristics of foot orthoses may challenge the validity, reliability, and clinical usefulness of the data obtained from in-shoe pressure-measurement systems in the context of foot orthotic therapy and research. The inability of in-shoe pressure-measurement systems to measure shearing forces beneath the foot, the required bending of the flat two-dimensional sensor insole to fit the pressure insole to the three-dimensional curves of the orthosis, the subsequent unbending of the sensor insole to display it on a computer monitor, and variations in the load-deformation characteristics of orthoses are all sources of potential error in examination of the kinetic effects of foot orthoses. Consequently, caution is required when interpreting the results of orthotic research that has used in-shoe pressure insole technology. The limitations of the technology should also be given due respect when in-shoe pressure measurement is used to make clinical decisions and prescribe custom foot orthoses for patients. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(6): 518–529, 2010)

Corresponding author: Simon K. Spooner, PhD, BSc, Peninsula Podiatry, 1A, Edgcumbe Park Rd, Plymouth PL3 4NL, England. (E-mail: skspooner@blueyonder.co.uk)
Save