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Normal Genetic Variation of the Human Foot: Part 2
Population Variance, Epigenetic Mechanisms, and Developmental Constraint in Function
Greg QuinnPodiatric Surgery, Holywell Healthcare, Chesterfield, Derbyshire, England. Mr. Quinn is now with Podiatric Surgery, Circle Clinic, Rother House Medical Centre, Alcester Road, Stratford Upon Avon, Warwickshire CV37 6PP, England. (E-mail: email@example.com)
Congenital deformities of the foot have been reported to correlate with regulatory epigenetic mechanisms that are also responsible for the timing and sequencing of developmental growth of the lower limb. Developmental variance of normal morphologic features has also been shown to vary between populations despite the retention of human foot characteristics. The molecular evidence for genetically controlled expressions of common evolved physical features is highly suggestive of regulatory control mechanisms that act together with developmental constraints to homogenize the retained functional characteristics of the foot. Genetic variance in morphologic features and functional plasticity when linked to morphometric change during gait may prove influential in clarifying kinematic and kinetic relationships (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(2): 149–156, 2012)