• 1.

    Anderson, JG, R Harrington, RP Ching, et al. :Alterations in talar morphology associated with adult flatfoot. .Foot Ankle Int 18::705. ,1997. .

  • 2.

    Imhauser, CW, S Siegler, NA Abidi, et al. :The effect of posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction on the plantar pressure characteristics and the kinematics of the arch and hindfoot. .Clin Biomech 19::161. ,2004. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Kalen, V and A Brecher. :Relationship between adolescent bunions and flatfeet. .8::331. ,1988. .

  • 4.

    Harper, MC . :Talonavicular arthrodesis for the acquired flatfoot in the adult. .Clin Orthop 365::65. ,1999. .

  • 5.

    Chu, IT, MS Myerson, M Nyska, et al. :Experimental flatfoot model: the contribution of dynamic loading. .Foot Ankle Int 22::220. ,2001. .

  • 6.

    Greisberg, J, ST Hansen, and B Sangeorzan. :Deformity and degeneration in the hindfoot and midfoot joints of adult acquired flatfoot. .Foot Ankle Int 24::530. ,2003. .

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Tardieu, C . :Development of the human hind limb and its importance for the evolution of bipedalism. .Evol Anthropol 19::174. ,2010. .

  • 8.

    Skoyles, JR . :Human balance, the evolution of bipedalism and dysequilibrium syndrome. .Med Hypotheses 66::1060. ,2006. .

  • 9.

    Elftman, H and J Manter. :Chimpanzee and human feet in bipedal walking. .Am J Phys Anthropol 20::69. ,1935. .

  • 10.

    Sammarco, GJ . : “Biomechanics of the Foot. ,” inBasic Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System. , edited byNordin, M and VH Frankel. , p163. ,Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ,Philadelphia. ,2001. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Perry, J . : “Normal Gait. ,” inGait Analysis: Normal and Pathological Function. , edited byPerry, J. , p69. ,Slack Inc. ,Thorofare, NJ. ,1992. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Sarrafian, SK . :Functional characteristics of the foot and the plantar aponeurosis under tibiotalar loading. .Foot Ankle 8::4. ,1987. .

  • 13.

    Bojsen-Møller, F . :Calcaneocuboid joint and stability of the longitudinal arch of the foot at high and low gear push off. .J Anat 129::165. ,1979. .

  • 14.

    Lewis, OJ . :The joints of the evolving foot: part III. The fossil evidence. .J Anat 131::275. ,1980. .

  • 15.

    Lewis, OJ . :The joints of the evolving foot: part II. The intrinsic joints. .J Anat 130::833. ,1980. .

  • 16.

    Susman, RL . :Evolution of the human foot: evidence from Plio-Pleistocene hominids. .Foot Ankle 3::365. ,1983. .

  • 17.

    Kidd, RS, PO O’Higgins, and CE Oxnard. :The OH8 foot: a reappraisal of the hindfoot utilizing a multivariate analysis. .J Human Evol 31::269. ,1996. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Kidd, RS . :The past is the key to the present: thoughts on the origins of human foot structure, function and dysfunction as seen from the fossil record. .Foot 8::75. ,1998. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Harcourt-Smith, WEH and LC Aiello. :Fossils, feet, and the evolution of human bipedal locomotion. .J Anat 204::403. ,2004. .

  • 20.

    Close, JR, VT Inman, PM Poor, et al. :The function of the subtalar joint. .Clin Orthop Relat Res 50::159. ,1967. .

  • 21.

    DeSilva, JM . :Functional morphology of the ankle and the likelihood of climbing in early hominins. .Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106::6567. ,2009. .

  • 22.

    Kidd, R . :Evolution of the rearfoot: a model of adaptation with evidence from the fossil record. .JAPMA 89::2. ,1999. .

  • 23.

    Meldrum, JD . :Complications for the interpretation of hominid terrestrial adaptations. .Am J Phys Anthropol 84::273. ,1991. .

  • 24.

    Gebo, DL . :Plantigrady and foot adaptation in African apes: implications for hominid origins. .Am J Phys Anthropol 89::29. ,1992. .

  • 25.

    Crompton, RH and EE Vereecke. :Locomotion and posture from common hominoid ancestor to fully modern hominins, with special reference to the last common panin/hominin ancestor. .J Anat 212::501. ,2008. .

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Sarrafian, SK . : “Functional Anatomy of the Foot and Ankle. ,” inAnatomy of the Foot and Ankle: Descriptive, Topographic, Functional. , edited bySarrafian, SK. , p16. ,Lippincott. ,Philadelphia. ,1983. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Ananthakrisnan, D, R Ching, A Tencer, et al. :Subluxation of the talocalcaneal joint in adults who have symptomatic flatfoot. .J Bone Joint Surg Am 81::1147. ,1999. .

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Leung, AK, AF Mak, and JH Evans. :Biomechanical gait evaluation of the immediate effect of orthotic treatment for flexible flat foot. .Prosthet Orthot Int 22::25. ,1998. .

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Arangio, GA, DC Phillippy, D Xiao, et al. :Subtalar pronation-relationship to the medial longitudinal arch loading in the normal foot. .Foot Ankle Int 21::216. ,2000. .

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Karasick, D and ME Schweitzer. :Tear of the posterior tibial tendon causing asymmetric flatfoot: radiologic findings. .Am J Roentgenol 161::1237. ,1993. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Pinney, S and SS Lin. :Current concepts review: acquired adult flatfoot deformity. .Foot Ankle Int 27::66. ,2006. .

  • 32.

    Youlatos, D and GD Koufos. :Locomotor evolution of Mesopithecus (primates: Colobinae) evidence from selected astragalar characters. .Primates 51::23. ,2010. .

  • 33.

    Kanamoto, S, N Ogihara, and M Nakatsukasa. :Three-dimensional orientations of talar articular surfaces in humans and great apes. .Primates 52::61. ,2011. .

  • 34.

    Day, MH and JR Napier. :Fossil foot bones. .Nature 201::969. ,1964. .

  • 35.

    Strasser, E . :Pedal evidence for the origin and diversification of cercopithecid clades. .J Human Evol 17::225. ,1988. .

  • 36.

    Barnett, CH . :Some factors influencing angulation of the neck of the mammalian talus. .J Anat 89::225. ,1955. .

  • 37.

    Lisowski, FP . :Angular growth changes and comparisons in the primate talus. .Folia Primatol (Basel) 7::81. ,1967. .

  • 38.

    Elftman, H . :The transverse tarsal joint and its control. .Clin Orthop 16::41. ,1960. .

  • 39.

    DeSilva, JM . :Revisiting the “midtarsal break.”. Am J Phys Anthropol 141::245. ,2010. .

  • 40.

    Jay, R . : “Introduction to the Flatfoot. ,” inPediatric Foot and Ankle Surgery. , Vol1:, edited byJay, R. , p142. ,WB Saunders. ,Philadelphia. ,1999. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Grumbine, NA . :Talar neck osteotomy for the treatment of severe structural flatfoot deformities. .Clin Podiatr Med Surg 4::1190. ,1987. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Grumbine, NA . :Talar neck osteotomy for flatfoot reconstruction: a 27-year follow-up study. .Foot Ankle Clin 23::41. ,2006. .

  • 43.

    Gebo, DL and GT Schwartz. :Foot bones from Omo: implications for hominid evolution. .Am J Phys Anthropol 129::499. ,2006. .

  • 44.

    Turriago, CA, MF Arbelaez, and LC Becerra. :Talonavicular joint arthrodesis for the treatment of older children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. .J Child Orthop 3::179. ,2009. .

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Taylor, RT . :A discussion of Wolff’s law. .J Bone Joint Surg Am 15 ( suppl 1:):221. ,1902. .

  • 46.

    Gellman, H, M Lenihan, N Halikis, et al. :Selective tarsal arthrodesis: an in vitro analysis of the effect on foot motion. .Foot and Ankle 8::127. ,1987. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Hart, DJ and TD Spector. :Radiographic criteria for epidemiologic studies of osteoarthritis. .J Rheum 22::46. ,1995. .

  • 48.

    Fortin, R . :Posterior tibial tendon insufficiency: isolated fusion of the talonavicular joint. .Foot Ankle Clin N Am 6::137. ,2001. .

  • 49.

    Graves, SC, TH Badwey, and KO Graves. :Biomechanics and orthotics of the foot in athletes. .Op Tech Sports Med 2::2. ,1994. .

  • 50.

    Jones, RL . :The functional significance of the declination of the axis of the subtalar joint. .Anat Rec 93::151. ,1945. .

  • 51.

    Inman, VT . :The Joints of the Ankle. , edited bySteihl, JB. ,Williams & Wilkins. ,Baltimore. ,1976. .

  • 52.

    Hansen, ST . : “Post Traumatic Degenerative Problems of the Joints. ,” inFunctional Reconstruction of the Foot and Ankle. , edited byHansen, ST. , p157. ,Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ,Philadelphia. ,2000. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Sarmiento, EE . :The Os navicular of humans, great apes, OH 8, Hadar, and Oreopithecus: function, phylogeny, and multivariate analyses. .Am Museum Novitates 3288::2. ,2000. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Cotton, FJ . :Foot statics and surgery. .N Engl J Med 214::353. ,1936. .

  • 55.

    Thordarson, DB, H Schmotzer, J Chon, et al. :Dynamic support of the human longitudinal arch: a biomechanical evaluation. .Clin Orthop Relat Res 316::165. ,1995. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Morton, D . :The human foot: its evolution, physiology, functional disorders. .Arch Intern Med 57::1056. ,1936. .

  • 57.

    Coughlin, MJ . :Hallux valgus: causes evaluation, and treatment. .Postgrad Med 75::174. ,1984. .

  • 58.

    Mann, RA and MJ Coughlin. :Hallux valgus: etiology, anatomy, treatment and surgical considerations. .Clin Orthop Relat Res 157::31. ,1981. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    Inman, VT . :Hallux valgus: a review of etiologic factors. .Orthop Clin North Am 5::59. ,1974. .

  • 60.

    Klaue, K, ST Hansen, and AC Masquelet. :Clinical, quantitative assessment of first tarsometatarsal mobility in sagittal plane and its relation to hallux valgus deformity. .Foot Ankle Int 15::9. ,1994. .

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Vereecke, EE, K D’Aout, D De Clercq, et al. :Dynamic plantar pressure distribution during terrestrial locomotion in bonobos (Pan paniscus). .Am J Phys Anthropol 120::373. ,2003. .

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62.

    Jablonski, NG and G Chaplin. :The origin of habitual terrestrial bipedalism in the ancestor of the Hominidae. .J Hum Evol 24::259. ,1993. .

A Cross-disciplinary Approach to Understanding Flatfoot

Priya Ponnapula Department of Podiatric Surgery, Bone and Joint Institute, 2325 Dougherty Ferry Rd, Suite 202, St. Louis, MO 63122. (E-mail: Priyaponnapula@gmail.com)

Search for other papers by Priya Ponnapula in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DPM
Restricted access

As form follows function, pedal anatomy is embedded in a history of evolution. This literature review seeks to further the understanding of physiologic and pathologic flatfoot through cross-disciplinary research of expired and extant members of the Homininae subfamily. Archaeological, anthropological, paleontological, and ontogenetic evidence presents multiple biomechanical similarities and anatomical parallels between flatfooted hominins and humans. Recognizing an evolutionary pattern in flatfoot pathologic disorders enhances anticipation and effective treatment. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 102(4): 319–323, 2012)