• 1.

    Setton, LA, DM Elliott, and VC Mow. :Altered mechanics of cartilage with osteoarthritis: human osteoarthritis and an experimental model of joint degeneration. .Osteoarthritis Cartilage 7::2. ,1999. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Hsieh, YF, LF Draganich, SH Ho, et al. :The effects of removal and reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament on the contact characteristics of the patellofemoral joint. .Am J Sports Med 30::121. ,2002. .

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Wilson, DR, JD Feikes, and JJ O’Connor. :Ligaments and articular contact guide passive knee flexion. .J Biomech 31::1127. ,1998. .

  • 4.

    Goodfellow, J and J O’Connor. :The mechanics of the knee and prosthesis design. .J Bone Joint Surg Br 60::358. ,1978. .

  • 5.

    Menschik, A . :Mechanics of the knee-joint: 1 (author’s transl) [in German]. .Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb 112::481. ,1974. .

  • 6.

    Ball, R . :A Treatise on the Theory of Screws. ,Cambridge University Press. ,Cambridge, England. ,1998. .

  • 7.

    van den Bogert, AJ, C Reinschmidt, and A Lundberg. :Helical axes of skeletal knee joint motion during running. .J Biomech 41::1632. ,2008. .

  • 8.

    Vaughan, CL . :Are joint torques the Holy Grail of human gait analysis? Hum Move Sci 15::423. ,1996. .

  • 9.

    Montgomery, SC, JD Moorehead, JS Davidson, et al. :A new technique for measuring the rotational axis pathway of a moving knee. .The Knee 5::289. ,1998. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Johnson, RJ, BD Beynnon, CE Nichols, et al. :The treatment of injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament. .J Bone Joint Surg Am 74::140. ,1992. .

  • 11.

    Rubin, R and HB Menz. :Use of laterally wedged custom foot orthoses to reduce pain associated with medial knee osteoarthritis: a preliminary investigation. .JAPMA 95::347. ,2005. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Kerrigan, DC, JL Lelas, J Goggins, et al. :Effectiveness of a lateral-wedge insole on knee varus torque in patients with knee osteoarthritis. .Arch Phys Med Rehabil 83::889. ,2002. .

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Sharma, L . :The role of varus and valgus alignment in knee osteoarthritis. .Arthritis Rheum 56::1044. ,2007. .

  • 14.

    Kim, W, AS Voloshin, and HJ Stanley. :Modeling of heel strike transients during running. .Hum Move Sci 13::221. ,1994. .

  • 15.

    Kim, W and AS Voloshin. :Role of plantar fascia in the load-bearing capacity of the human foot. .J Biomech 28::1025. ,1995. .

  • 16.

    Kim, W, J Tan, A Veloso, et al. :The natural frequency of the foot-surface cushion during the stance phase of running. .J Biomech 44::774. ,2011. .

  • 17.

    Kim, W, DC Tretheway, and SS Kohles. :An inverse method for predicting tissue-level mechanics from cellular mechanical input. .J Biomech 42::395. ,2009. .

  • 18.

    Riemer, R, ET Hsiao-Wecksler, and X Zhang. :Uncertainties in inverse dynamics solutions: a comprehensive analysis and an application to gait. .Gait Posture 27::578. ,2008. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Shabana, A . :Computational Dynamics. ,John Wiley & Sons Inc. ,New York. ,2010. .

  • 20.

    Guelton, K, S Delprat, and TM Guerra. :An alternative to inverse dynamics joint torques estimation in human stance based on a Takagi-Sugeno unknown-inputs observer in the descriptor form. .Control Eng Pract 16::1414. ,2008. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    McCaw, ST and P DeVita. :Errors in alignment of center of pressure and foot coordinates affect predicted lower extremity torques. .J Biomech 28::985. ,1995. .

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Delp, SL, FC Anderson, AS Arnold, et al. :OpenSim: open-source software to create and analyze dynamic simulations of movement. .IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 54.:1940. ,2007. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Richards, C and JS Higginson. :Knee contact force in subjects with symmetrical OA grades: differences between OA severities. .J Biomech 43::2595. ,2010. .

  • 24.

    Kim, HJ, JW Fernandez, M Akbarshahi, et al. :Evaluation of predicted knee-joint muscle forces during gait using an instrumented knee implant. .J Orthop Res 27::1326. ,2009. .

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Lu, TW and JJ O’Connor. :Bone position estimation from skin marker co-ordinates using global optimisation with joint constraints. .J Biomech 32::129. ,1999. .

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Fregly, BJ, TF Besier, DG Lloyd, et al. :Grand challenge competition to predict in vivo knee loads. .J Orthop Res 30::503. ,2012. .

  • 27.

    Kim, W and SS Kohles. :A reciprocal connection factor for assessing knee-joint function. .Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin 15::911. ,2012. .

  • 28.

    Zheng, N, GS Fleisig, RF Escamilla, et al. :An analytical model of the knee for estimation of internal forces during exercise. .J Biomech 31::963. ,1998. .

  • 29.

    Vaughan, CL . :Theories of bipedal walking: an odyssey. .J Biomech 36::513. ,2003. .

  • 30.

    Kiat Teu, K and W Kim. :Estimation of the axis of a screw motion from noisy data: a new method based on Plucker lines. .J Biomech 39::2857. ,2006. .

  • 31.

    Dooner, DB . :On the three laws of gearing. .J Mechanical Design 124::733. ,2002. .

  • 32.

    Mundermann, A, JL Asay, L Mundermann, et al. :Implications of increased medio-lateral trunk sway for ambulatory mechanics. .J Biomech 41::165. ,2008. .

  • 33.

    Sasaki, K and RR Neptune. :Individual muscle contributions to the axial knee joint contact force during normal walking. .J Biomech 43::2780. ,2010. .

  • 34.

    Zhao, D, SA Banks, DD D’Lima, et al. :In vivo medial and lateral tibial loads during dynamic and high flexion activities. .J Orthop Res 25::593. ,2007. .

  • 35.

    Crowninshield, RD and RA Brand. :A physiologically based criterion of muscle force prediction in locomotion. .J Biomech 14::793. ,1981. .

  • 36.

    Fuller, EA . :Center of pressure and its theoretical relationship to foot pathology. .JAPMA 89::278. ,1999. .

  • 37.

    Perry, J . :Gait Analysis: Normal and Pathologic Function. ,Slack, Thorofare. ,NJ. ,1992. .

  • 38.

    Teixeira, LF and SJ Olney. :Relationship between alignment and kinematic and kinetic measures of the knee of osteoarthritic elderly subjects in level walking. .Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 11::126. ,1996. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Wang, H and SJ Olney. :Relationships between alignment, kinematic and kinetic measures of the knee of normal elderly subjects in level walking. .Clin Biomech 9::245. ,1994. .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

The Stationary Configuration of the Knee

Wangdo Kim Univ Tecn Lisboa, Fac Motricidade Humana, CIPER, LBMF, P-1499-002 Lisbon, Portugal.

Search for other papers by Wangdo Kim in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
Antonio P. Veloso Univ Tecn Lisboa, Fac Motricidade Humana, CIPER, LBMF, P-1499-002 Lisbon, Portugal.

Search for other papers by Antonio P. Veloso in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
Veronica E. Vleck Univ Tecn Lisboa, Fac Motricidade Humana, CIPER, LBMF, P-1499-002 Lisbon, Portugal.

Search for other papers by Veronica E. Vleck in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
Carlos Andrade Univ Tecn Lisboa, Fac Motricidade Humana, CIPER, LBMF, P-1499-002 Lisbon, Portugal.

Search for other papers by Carlos Andrade in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
, and
Sean S. Kohles Bioengineering Laboratory, Departments of Mechanical and Materials Engineering and Biology, Portland State University, and Department of Surgery, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR.

Search for other papers by Sean S. Kohles in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD

Background:

Ligaments and cartilage contact contribute to the mechanical constraints in the knee joints. However, the precise influence of these structural components on joint movement, especially when the joint constraints are computed using inverse dynamics solutions, is not clear.

Methods:

We present a mechanical characterization of the connections between the infinitesimal twist of the tibia and the femur due to restraining forces in the specific tissue components that are engaged and responsible for such motion. These components include the anterior cruciate, posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments and cartilage contact surfaces in the medial and lateral compartments. Their influence on the bony rotation about the instantaneous screw axis is governed by restraining forces along the constraints explored using the principle of reciprocity.

Results:

Published kinetic and kinematic joint data (American Society of Mechanical Engineers Grand Challenge Competition to Predict In Vivo Knee Loads) are applied to define knee joint function for verification using an available instrumented knee data set. We found that the line of the ground reaction force (GRF) vector is very close to the axis of the knee joint. It aligns the knee joint with the GRF such that the reaction torques are eliminated. The reaction to the GRF will then be carried by the structural components of the knee instead.

Conclusions:

The use of this reciprocal system introduces a new dimension of foot loading to the knee axis alignment. This insight shows that locating knee functional axes is equivalent to the static alignment measurement. This method can be used for the optimal design of braces and orthoses for conservative treatment of knee osteoarthritis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(2): 126–135, 2013)

Corresponding author: Wangdo Kim, PhD, Biomechanics and Functional Morphology Laboratory, Faculty of Human Kinetics, Technical University of Lisbon, Estrada da Costa 1495-688, Cruz-Quebrada, Portugal. (E-mail: mwdkim@gmail.com)