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Prevalence of Flatfoot and Anthropometric Comparison Between Flat and Normal Feet in the Hausa Ethnic Group of Nigeria

Musa B. T. Umar Department of Anatomy, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.

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 MBBS, MSc, PhD
and
Rabiu U. Tafida Department of Anatomy, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.

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Background:

Flat arches in children usually become proper arches and high arches as the child progresses through adolescence and into adulthood. Only if the deformity persists or presents in adolescence or adulthood is it considered abnormal. We sought to determine the incidence of flatfoot in schoolchildren and to make an anthropometric comparison between flat and normal feet with respect to age and sex in the Hausa ethnic group of Nigeria.

Methods:

Two hundred 9- to 14-year-old students (100 boys and 100 girls) were studied. Navicular height, medial malleolar height, lateral malleolar height, foot length, and transverse arch length were measured with a ruler, marker, and measuring tape. Statistical analysis was conducted using analysis of variance and independent-samples t tests (P < .05).

Results:

The overall prevalence of flatfoot was 10% (n = 20) (7% in boys [n = 7] and 13% in girls [n = 13]). Statistically significant differences were found in all of the measured parameters except foot length. This study showed that flatfoot has a higher incidence in girls than in boys in the Hausa ethnic group, with the incidence decreasing with age.

Conclusions:

Girls had a higher incidence of flatfoot than boys, and it was also influenced by age. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 103(5): 369–373, 2013)

Corresponding author: Musa B. T. Umar, Department of Anatomy, University of Jos, Jos, Plateau 234, Nigeria. (E-mail: babatanko2001@yahoo.com)