Gregg EW, Sorlie P, Paulose-Ram R, et al: Prevalence of lower-extremity disease in the US adult population ≥40 years of age with and without diabetes: 1999–2000 national health and nutrition examination survey. Diabetes Care 27: 1591, 2004.
Schade CP, Hannah KL: Quality of ambulatory care for diabetes and lower-extremity amputation. Am J Med Qual 22: 410, 2007.
Schofield CJ, Libby G, Brennan GM, et al: Mortality and hospitalization in patients after amputation: a comparison between patients with and without diabetes. Diabetes Care 29: 2252, 2006.
Willrich A, Pinzur M, McNeil M, et al: Health related quality of life, cognitive function, and depression in diabetic patients with foot ulcer or amputation: a preliminary study. Foot Ankle Int 26: 128, 2005.
Siitonen OI, Niskanen LK, Laakso M, et al: Lower-extremity amputations in diabetic and nondiabetic patients: a population-based study in eastern Finland. Diabetes Care 16: 16, 1993.
Trautner C, Haastert B, Giani G, et al: Incidence of lower limb amputations and diabetes. Diabetes Care 19: 1006, 1996.
Peters EJ, Childs MR, Wunderlich RP, et al: Functional status of persons with diabetes-related lower-extremity amputations. Diabetes Care 24: 1799, 2001.
Reiber G (ed): “Epidemiology of Foot Ulcers and Amputations in the Diabetic Foot,” in Levin and O'Neal's The Diabetic Foot, 6th Ed, edited by JH Bowker, MA Pfeifer, Mosby Inc, St. Louis, 2001.
Apelqvist J, Larsson J: What is the most effective way to reduce incidence of amputation in the diabetic foot? Diabetes Metab Res Rev 16 (suppl 1): S75, 2000.
Lavery LA, Armstrong DG, Wunderlich RP, et al: Risk factors for foot infections in individuals with diabetes. Diabetes Care 29: 1288, 2006.
Pecoraro RE, Reiber GE, Burgess EM: Pathways to diabetic limb amputation: basis for prevention. Diabetes Care 13: 513, 1990.
Reiber GE: The epidemiology of diabetic foot problems. Diabet Med 13 (suppl 1): S6, 1996.
Singh N, Armstrong DG, Lipsky BA: Preventing foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. JAMA 293: 217, 2005.
Mantey I, Foster AV, Spencer S, et al: Why do foot ulcers recur in diabetic patients? Diabet Med 16: 245, 1999.
Chantelau E, Kushner T, Spraul M: How effective is cushioned therapeutic footwear in protecting diabetic feet? a clinical study. Diabet Med 7: 355, 1990.
Levin ME: Management of the diabetic foot: preventing amputation. South Med J 95: 10, 2002.
Apelqvist J, Bakker K, van Houtum WH, et al; International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) Editorial Board: The development of global consensus guidelines on the management of the diabetic foot. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 24 (suppl 1): S116, 2008.
Adler AI, Boyko EJ, Ahroni JH, et al: Lower-extremity amputation in diabetes: the independent effects of peripheral vascular disease, sensory neuropathy, and foot ulcers. Diabetes Care 22: 1029, 1999.
Boulton AJ: Lowering the risk of neuropathy, foot ulcers and amputations. Diabet Med 15 (suppl 4): S57, 1998.
Davis WA, Norman PE, Bruce DG, et al: Predictors, consequences and costs of diabetes-related lower extremity amputation complicating type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study. Diabetologia 49: 2634, 2006.
Day MR, Harkless LB: Factors associated with pedal ulceration in patients with diabetes mellitus. JAPMA 87: 365, 1997.
Frykberg RG, Armstrong DG, Giurini J, et al; for the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons and the American College of Foot and Ankle Orthopedics and Medicine: Diabetic foot disorders: a clinical practice guideline. J Foot Ankle Surg (suppl): 1, 2000.
Margolis DJ, Allen-Taylor L, Hoffstad O, et al: Diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers and amputation. Wound Repair Regen 13: 230, 2005.
Reiber GE, Raugi GJ: Preventing foot ulcers and amputations in diabetes. Lancet 366: 1676, 2005.
Van Gils CC, Wheeler LA, Mellstrom M, et al: Amputation prevention by vascular surgery and podiatry collaboration in high-risk diabetic and nondiabetic patients: the Operation Desert Foot experience. Diabetes Care 22: 678, 1999.
American Diabetes Association: Standards of medical care in diabetes: 2010. Diabetes Care 33 (suppl 1): S11, 2010.
Bild DE, Selby JV, Sinnock P, et al: Lower-extremity amputation in people with diabetes: epidemiology and prevention. Diabetes Care 12: 24, 1989.
Apelqvist J, Ragnarson-Tennvall G, Larsson J, et al: Long-term costs for foot ulcers in diabetic patients in a multidisciplinary setting. Foot Ankle Int 16: 388, 1995.
Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 329: 977, 1993.
Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA, et al: 10-Year follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 359: 1577, 2008.
Boulton AJ, Armstrong DG, Albert SF, et al: Comprehensive foot examination and risk assessment: a report of the task force of the foot care interest group of the American Diabetes Association, with endorsement by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Diabetes Care 31: 1679, 2008.
US Preventive Services Task Force: Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 148: 846, 2008.
Resnick HE, Valsania P, Phillips CL: Diabetes mellitus and nontraumatic lower extremity amputation in black and white Americans: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, 1971–1992. Arch Intern Med 159: 2470, 1999.
Gregg EW, Gu Q, Williams D, et al: Prevalence of lower extremity diseases associated with normal glucose levels, impaired fasting glucose, and diabetes among U.S. adults aged 40 or older. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 77: 485, 2007.
Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group: Lifetime benefits and costs of intensive therapy as practiced in the diabetes control and complications trial. JAMA 276: 1409, 1996.
Andersen CA, Roukis TS: The diabetic foot. Surg Clin North Am 87: 1149, 2007.
Armstrong DG: Is diabetic foot care efficacious or cost effective? Ostomy Wound Manage 47: 28, 2001.
Armstrong DG, Lavery LA, Harkless LB: Treatment-based classification system for assessment and care of diabetic feet. JAPMA 86: 311, 1996.
Valk GD, Kriegsman DM, Assendelft WJ: Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1: CD001488, 2005.
Valk GD, Kriegsman DM, Assendelft WJ: Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration: a systematic review. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 31: 633, 2002.
Valk GD, Kriegsman DM, Assendelft WJ: Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4: CD001488, 2001.
Ashry HR, Lavery LA, Murdoch DP, et al: Effectiveness of diabetic insoles to reduce foot pressures. J Foot Ankle Surg 36: 268, 1997.
Armstrong DG, Lavery LA, Frykberg RG, et al: Validation of a diabetic foot surgery classification. Int Wound J 3: 240, 2006.
Armstrong DG, Lavery LA, Stern S, et al: Is prophylactic diabetic foot surgery dangerous? J Foot Ankle Surg 35: 585, 1996.
Catanzariti AR: Prophylactic foot surgery in the diabetic patient. Adv Wound Care 12: 312, 1999.
Connor H: Some historical aspects of diabetic foot disease. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 24 (suppl 1): S7, 2008.
Giacalone VF, Krych SM, Harkless LB: The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio: experience with foot surgery in diabetics. J Foot Ankle Surg 33: 590, 1994.
Gudas CJ: Prophylactic surgery in the diabetic foot. Clin Podiatr Med Surg 4: 445, 1987.
Nishimoto GS, Attinger CE, Cooper PS: Lengthening the Achilles tendon for the treatment of diabetic plantar forefoot ulceration. Surg Clin North Am 83: 707, 2003.
Reimer H, Ketfi M, Boulmont M: Diabetic foot: is preventive surgery possible? Zentralbl Chir 124 (suppl 1): 33, 1999.
Armstrong DG, Lavery LA, Holtz-Neiderer K, et al: Variability in activity may precede diabetic foot ulceration. Diabetes Care 27: 1980, 2004.
Cavanagh PR, Lipsky BA, Bradbury AW, et al: Treatment for diabetic foot ulcers. Lancet 366: 1725, 2005.
Edmonds ME, Blundell MP, Morris ME, et al: Improved survival of the diabetic foot: the role of a specialized foot clinic. Q J Med 60: 763, 1986.
Viswanathan V, Madhavan S, Gnanasundaram S, et al: Effectiveness of different types of footwear insoles for the diabetic neuropathic foot: a follow-up study. Diabetes Care 27: 474, 2004.
Lavery LA, Hunt NA, Lafontaine J, et al: Diabetic foot prevention: a neglected opportunity in high-risk patients. Diabetes Care 33: 1460, 2010.
Joslin Clinical Oversight Committee: Joslin Diabetes Center and Joslin Clinic clinical guideline for adults with diabetes. Available at: http://www.joslin.org/docs/Adult_guidelines_041109_grade_updating.pdf. Published April 3, 2009. Accessed March 10, 2010.
Diabetes Guidelines Work Group: Massachusetts guidelines for adult diabetes care. Available at: http://www.mass.gov/dph/diabetes. Updated 2009. Accessed March 25, 2010.
Boulton AJ, Armstrong DG, Albert SF, et al: Comprehensive foot examination and risk assessment: a report of the Task Force of the Foot Care Interest Group of the American Diabetes Association, with endorsement by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Phys Ther 88: 1436, 2008.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence: Clinical guidelines for type 2 diabetes: prevention and management of foot problems. Available at: http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG10. Published June 17, 2004. Accessed January 20, 2010.
Apelqvist J, Bakker K, van Houtum WH, et al; International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) Editorial Board: Practical guidelines on the management and prevention of the diabetic foot: based upon the International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot (2007) prepared by the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 24 (suppl 1): S181, 2008.
National Diabetes Education Program's Pharmacy, Podiatry, Optometry, and Dental Professionals' Work Group: Working together to manage diabetes: a guide for pharmacy, podiatry, optometry, and dental professionals. Available at: http://ndep.nih.gov//publications/OnlineVersion.aspx?NdepId=NDEP-54. Published January 24, 2007. Accessed March 10, 2009.
Armstrong DG, Lavery LA, Wunderlich RP: Risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration: a logical approach to treatment. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 25: 123, 1998.
Beckman TJ: Regular screening in type 2 diabetes: a mnemonic approach for improving compliance, detecting complications. Postgrad Med 115: 19, 2004.
Shin JB, Seong YJ, Lee HJ, et al: Foot screening technique in a diabetic population. J Korean Med Sci 15: 78, 2000.
Simeone LR, Veves A: Screening techniques to identify the diabetic patient at risk of ulceration. JAPMA 87: 313, 1997.
Aksoy DY, Gurlek A, Cetinkaya Y, et al: Change in the amputation profile in diabetic foot in a tertiary reference center: efficacy of team working. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 112: 526, 2004.
American Public Health Association: Reducing the incidence of blindness, lower extremity amputation, and oral health complications in minority populations due to diabetes. Am J Public Health 91: 478, 2001.
Ortegon MM, Redekop WK, Niessen LW: Cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment of the diabetic foot: a Markov analysis. Diabetes Care 27: 901, 2004.
Larsson J, Eneroth M, Apelqvist J, et al: Sustained reduction in major amputations in diabetic patients: 628 amputations in 461 patients in a defined population over a 20-year period. Acta Orthop 79: 665, 2008.
Prompers L, Huijberts M, Apelqvist J, et al: Delivery of care to diabetic patients with foot ulcers in daily practice: results of the Eurodiale Study, a prospective cohort study. Diabet Med 25: 700, 2008.
Rith-Najarian S, Branchaud C, Beaulieu O, et al: Reducing lower-extremity amputations due to diabetes: application of the staged diabetes management approach in a primary care setting. J Fam Pract 47: 127, 1998.
Wrobel JS, Robbins JM, Charns MP, et al: Diabetes-related foot care at 10 Veterans Affairs medical centers: must do's associated with successful microsystems. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 32: 206, 2006.
Anichini R, Zecchini F, Cerretini I, et al: Improvement of diabetic foot care after the implementation of the International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot (ICDF): results of a 5-year prospective study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 75: 153, 2007.
Massachusetts Public Health Association: Working for a Healthy Massachusetts Web site. http://www.mphaweb.org/index.htm. Accessed January 29, 2009.
Massachusetts Podiatric Medical Society: Massachusetts' Premier Foot and Ankle Surgeons Web site. http://www.massdpms.org. Accessed January 29, 2009.
Massachusetts fact sheet. US Census Bureau Web site. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/SAFFFacts?_event=Search&_lang=en&_sse=on&geo_id=04000US25&_state=04000US25. Accessed May 2007.
Prevalence Data: Massachusetts – 2000, Diabetes, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Center for Disease Control and Prevention. http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/brfss/display.asp?cat=DB&yr=2000&qkey. Accessed 2007.
National Diabetes Surveillance System: Hospitalizations for nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/statistics/lea/table3_4.htm. Accessed May 2007.
American Diabetes Association: Standards of medical care in diabetes: 2007. Diabetes Care 30 (suppl 1): S4, 2007.
American Diabetes Association: Preventive foot care in people with diabetes. Diabetes Care 23 (suppl 1): S55, 2000.
Resnick HE, Carter EA, Sosenko JM, et al: Incidence of lower-extremity amputation in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study. Diabetes Care 27: 1885, 2004.
Snyder RJ, Hanft JR: Diabetic foot ulcers: effects on quality of life, costs, and mortality and the role of standard wound care and advanced-care therapies in healing: a review. Ostomy Wound Manage 55: 28, 2009.
HealthyPeople.gov Web site. http://www.healthypeople.gov. Updated 2000. Accessed March 25, 2009.
Pinzur MS, Dart HC: Pedorthic management of the diabetic foot. Foot Ankle Clin 6: 205, 2001.
Giurini JM, Lyons TE: Diabetic foot complications: diagnosis and management. Int J Low Extrem Wounds 4: 171, 2005.
Peters AL, Legorreta AP, Ossorio RC, et al: Quality of outpatient care provided to 507 diabetic patients: a health maintenance organization experience. Diabetes Care 19: 601, 1996.
Gregg EW, Karter AJ, Gerzoff RB, et al: Characteristics of insured patients with persistent gaps in diabetes care services: the Translating Research into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) study. Med Care 48: 31, 2010.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): National Diabetes Surveillance System. http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/statistics/index.htm. Accessed January 10, 2009.
Linzer M, Manwell LB, Williams ES, et al: Working conditions in primary care: physician reactions and care quality. Ann Intern Med 151: 28, 2009.
Janes GR: Ambulatory medical care for diabetes. http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/america/pdf/chapter26.pdf. Updated 1995. Accessed March 3, 2009.
Williams L, Ridgeway S: Lower limb screening: GP mini-clinic vs podiatry clinic. Diabetic Foot 5: 92, 2002.
Abbo ED, Zhang Q, Zelder M, et al: The increasing number of clinical items addressed during the time of adult primary care visits. J Gen Intern Med 23: 2058, 2008.
Rayman G, Krishnan ST, Baker NR, et al: Are we underestimating diabetes-related lower-extremity amputation rates? results and benefits of the first prospective study. Diabetes Care 27: 1892, 2004.
The Amputation Prevention Initiative is a project conducted jointly by the Massachusetts Public Health Association and the Massachusetts Podiatric Medical Society that seeks to study methods to reduce nontraumatic lower-extremity amputations from diabetes.
To determine the rate of diabetes-related lower-extremity amputations in Massachusetts and identify the groups most at risk, hospital billing and discharge data were analyzed. To examine the components of the diabetic foot examination routinely performed by general practitioners, surveys were conducted in conjunction with physician meetings in Massachusetts (n = 149) and in six other states (n = 490).
The average age-adjusted number of diabetes-related lower-extremity amputations in 2004 was 30.8 per 100,000 and 5.3 per 1,000 diabetic patients in MA, with high-risk groups being identified as men and black individuals. Among the general practitioners surveyed in Massachusetts, only 2.01% reported routinely conducting all four key components of the diabetic foot examination, with 28.86% reporting not performing any components.
These findings suggest that many general practitioners may be failing to perform the major components of the diabetic foot examination believed to prevent foot ulcers and lower-extremity amputations.