• 1.

    Arndt A, Westblad P, Winson I, et al: Foot. Ankle and subtalar joint kinematics measured with intercortical pins during the stance phase of walking. Foot Ankle Int 25: 357, 2004.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Nester C, Jones RK, Liu A, et al: Foot kinematics during walking measured using bone and surface mounted markers. J Biomech 40: 3412, 2007.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Deschamps K, Staes F, Roosen P, et al: Body of evidence supporting the clinical use of 3D multisegment foot models: a systematic review. Gait Posture 33: 338, 2011.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Birch I, Deschamps K: The in vitro reliability of the CODA MPX30 as the basis for a method of assessing the in vivo motion of the subtalar joint. JAPMA 101: 400, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Birch I, Deschamps K: Quantification of skin marker movement at the malleoli and talar heads. JAPMA 101: 497, 2011.

  • 6.

    Jasiewicz JM, Allum JHJ, Middleton JW, et al: Gait event detection using linear accelerometers or angular velocity transducers in able-bodied and spinal-cord injured individuals. Gait Posture 24: 502, 2006.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Michelson J, Hamel A, Buczek F, et al: The effect of ankle injury on subtalar joint motion. Foot Ankle Intern 25: 639 , 2004.

  • 8.

    Hamel AJ, Sharkey NA, Buczek FL, et al: Relative motions of the tibia, talus and calcaneus during the stance phase of gait: a cadaver study. Gait Posture 20: 147, 2004.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Manter JT: Movements of the subtalar and transverse tarsal joints. The Anatomical Record 80: 397, 1941.

  • 10.

    Root ML, Weed JH, Sgarlato TE, et al: Axis of motion of the subtalar joint. JAPMA 56: 149, 1966.

  • 11.

    Root ML, Orien WP, Weed JH: “Normal Motion of the Foot and Leg in Gait,” in Clinical Biomechanics, Vol 2, 1st Ed, Clinical Biomechanics Corporation, Los Angeles, p 135, 1977.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Isman RE, Inman VT: Anthropometric studies of the human foot. Bull Prosthetics Res Spring: 97, 1969.

  • 13.

    Siegler S, Chen J, Schneck CD: The three-dimensional kinematics and flexibility characteristics of the human ankle and subtalar joints – part I: kinematics. J Biomech Eng 110: 364, 1988.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    van Langelaan EJA: A kinematic analysis of the tarsal joints. Acta Orthop Scand 54: 1, 1983.

  • 15.

    Philips RD, Lidtke RH: Clinical determination of the linear equation for the subtalar joint axis. JAPMA 82: 1, 1992.

  • 16.

    Scott SH, Winter DA: Talocrural and talocalcaneal joint kinematics and kinetics during the stance phase of walking. J Biomech 24: 743, 1991.

  • 17.

    Leardini A, Stagni R, O'Connor JJ: Mobility of the subtalar joint in the intact ankle complex. J Biomech 34: 805, 2001.

Noninvasive Quantification of Subtalar Joint Kinematics

A Pilot Investigation

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Human Sciences, Consultant Forensic Biomechanist, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust.
  • | 2 Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Research Center for Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.
Restricted access

A noninvasive method of assessing the motion of the subtalar joint was developed for use in clinical and research settings. Anatomical reference frames for the calcaneus and talus were produced using a marker placement model utilizing 14 markers. An asymptomatic individual was tested during barefoot walking with a CODA MPX30 system. Intertrial variability and motion patterns, in all three planes, of the calcaneus with respect to the talus were analyzed as part of a validation study. The observed patterns in all three planes were found to have good face validity with published literature as well as good consistency during stance. The findings of this study support the further use of this model in both clinical and research settings, allowing investigation of the motion patterns of a larger cohort than has hitherto been possible.

Corresponding author: Ivan Birch, PhD, Department of Human Sciences, Consultant Forensic Biomechanist, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust C/O Jordanthorpe Health Centre, 1 Dyche Close, Sheffield, England, S88DJ. (E-mail: ivanbirch@btinternet.com)