• 1.

    Lee CM, Jeong EH, Freivalds A: Biomechanical effects of wearing high-heeled shoes. Int J Ind Ergonomics 28: 321, 2001.

  • 2.

    Menant JC, Perry SD, Steele JR, et al: Effects of shoe characteristics on dynamic stability when walking on even and uneven surfaces in young and older people. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 89: 1970, 2008.

    • Crossref
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Tencer AF, Koepsell TD, Wolf ME, et al: Biomechanical properties of shoes and risk of falls in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 52: 1840, 2004.

  • 4.

    Ebbeling CJ, Hamill J, Crussemeyer JA: Lower extremity mechanics and energy cost of walking in high-heeled shoes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 19: 190, 1994.

  • 5.

    Stefanyshyn DJ, Nigg BM, Fisher V, et al: The influence of high-heeled shoes on kinematics, kinetics, and muscle EMG of normal female gait. J Appl Biomech 16: 309, 2000.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Snow RE, Williams KR: High heeled shoes: their effect on centre of mass position, posture, three-dimensional kinematics, rearfoot motion, and ground reaction forces. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 75: 568, 1994.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Ucanok GM, Peterson DR: Knee and ankle deviations during high-heeled gait. In: Proceedings of the IEEE 32nd Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, p 17, 2006.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    DeVita P, Hong D, Hamill J: Effects of asymmetric load carrying on the biomechanics of walking. J Biomech 24: 1119, 1991.

  • 9.

    Hong Y, Li JX: Influence of load and carrying methods on gait phase and ground reactions in children's stair walking. Gait Posture 22: 63, 2005.

  • 10.

    Kernozek TW, LaMott EE, Dancisak MJ: Reliability of an in-shoe pressure measurement system during treadmill walking. Foot Ankle Int 17: 204, 1996.

  • 11.

    Kadaba MP, Ramakrishnan HK, Wootten ME, et al: Repeatability of kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic data in normal adult gait. J Orthop Res 7: 849, 1989.

  • 12.

    Pascoe DD, Pascoe DE, Wang YT, et al: Influence of carrying book bags on gait cycle and posture of youths. Ergonomics 40: 631, 1997.

  • 13.

    McMahon M, Block JA: The risk of contralateral total knee arthroplasty after knee replacement for osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 30: 1822, 2003.

  • 14.

    Eisenhardt JR, Cook D, Pregler I, et al: Changes in temporal gait characteristics and pressure distribution for bare feet versus various heel heights. Gait Posture 4: 280, 1995.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    McGraw B, McClenaghan BA, Williams HG, et al: Gait and postural stability in obese and non-obese prepubertal boys. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 81: 484, 2000.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Kinoshita H: Effects of different loads and carrying systems on selected biomechanics parameters describing walking gait. Ergonomics 28: 1347, 1985.

  • 17.

    Menant JC, Steele JR, Menz HB, et al: Effects of walking surfaces and footwear on temporo-spatial gait parameters in young and older people. Gait Posture 29: 392, 2009.

    • Crossref
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Effects of High-Heeled Shoes and Asymmetrical Load Carrying on Lower-Extremity Kinematics During Walking in Young Women

Soul Lee MSc1 and Jing Xian Li PhD1
View More View Less
  • 1 School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Restricted access

Background

Asymmetrical load carrying and wearing high-heeled shoes are very common. Biomechanics studies on the combined effects of high-heeled shoe wearing and asymmetrical load carrying are lacking. We sought to identify changes in lower-extremity joint kinematics associated with the effect of shoes and asymmetrical load carrying during walking.

Methods

Fifteen healthy young women (mean ± SD: age, 24.67 ± 3.54 years; body weight, 54.96 ± 6.67 kg; and height, 162.2 ± 3.91 cm) who habitually wore high-heeled shoes participated in the study. They were asked to walk under nine combined conditions of three heights of shoe heels (0, 3, and 9 cm) and three carried loads (0%, 5%, and 10% of body weight). Temporospatial parameters and maximal joint angles in the sagittal and frontal planes of the hip, knee, and ankle on both limbs were studied.

Results

It was found that high-heeled shoe wearing and asymmetrical load carrying altered temporospatial parameters and joint kinematics. With increased heel height and load weight, cadence decreased and stride length increased. The knee flexion angle increased with an increase in heel height, and the load served only to exacerbate the changes. Changes in the hip angle were mostly caused by asymmetrical load carrying, whereas angle changes in the ankle were mostly caused by an increase in heel height.

Conclusions

This study demonstrated that when high-heeled shoe wearing and asymmetrical load carrying are combined, changes at each joint are much greater than with high-heeled shoe wearing or load carrying alone.

Corresponding author: Jing Xian Li, PhD, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, 125 University, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada. (E-mail: jli@uottawa.ca)