• 1

    Lord SR, Clark RD, Webster IW: Postural stability and associated physiological factors in a population of aged persons. J Gerontol 46: M69, 1991.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Kristinsdottir EK, Jarnlo GB, Magnusson M: Aberrations in postural control, vibration sensation and some vestibular findings in healthy 64-92-year-old subjects. Scand J Rehabil Med 29: 257, 1997.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Spink MJ, Fotoohabadi MR, Wee E, et al: Foot and ankle strength, range of motion, posture, and deformity are associated with balance and functional ability in older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 92: 68, 2011.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Barr EL, Browning C, Lord SR, et al: Foot and leg problems are important determinants of functional status in community dwelling older people. Disabil Rehabil 27: 917, 2005.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Nawoczenski DA, Saltzman CL, Cook TM: The effect of foot structure on the three-dimensional kinematic coupling behavior of the leg and rearfoot. Phys Ther 78: 404, 1998.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Murley GS, Menz HB, Landorf KB: Foot posture influences the electromyographic activity of selected lower limb muscles during gait. J Foot Ankle Res 2: 35, 2009.

  • 7

    Menz HB, Fotoohabadi MR, Wee E, et al: Visual categorisation of the arch index: a simplified measure of foot posture in older people. J Foot Ankle Res 5: 10, 2012.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Telfer S, Woodburn J: The use of 3D surface scanning for the measurement and assessment of the human foot. J Foot Ankle Res 3: 19, 2010.

  • 9

    Brody DM: Techniques in the evaluation and treatment of the injured runner. Orthop Clin North Am 13: 541, 1982.

  • 10

    Allen MK, Glasoe WM: Metrocom meaurement of navicular drop in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury. J Athl Train 35: 403, 2000.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Bennett JE, Reinking MF, Pluemer B, et al: Factors contributing to the development of medial tibial stress syndrome in high school runners. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 31: 504, 2001.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Loudon JK, Jenkins W, Loudon KL: The relationship between static posture and ACL injury in female athletes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 24: 91, 1996.

  • 13

    Menz HB: Alternative techniques for the clinical assessment of foot pronation. JAPMA 88: 119, 1998.

  • 14

    Evans AM, Copper AW, Scharfbillig RW, et al: Reliability of the foot posture index and traditional measures of foot position. JAPMA 93: 203, 2003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Buchanan KR, Davis I: The relationship between forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot static alignment in pain-free individuals. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 35: 559, 2005.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Cote KP, Brunet ME, Gansneder BM, et al: Effects of pronated and supinated foot postures on static and dynamic postural stability J Athl Train 40: 41, 2005.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Lange B, Chipchase L, Evans A: The effect of low-dye taping on plantar pressures during gait, in subjects with navicular drop exceeding 10mm. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 34: 201, 2004.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Mueller MJ, Host JV, Norton BJ: Navicular drop as a composite measure of excessive pronation. JAPMA 83: 198, 1993.

  • 19

    Menz HB, Lord SR: Foot problems, functional impairment, and falls in older people. JAPMA 89: 458, 1999.

  • 20

    Van Swearingen JM, Brach JS: Making geriatric assessment work: selecting useful measures. Phys Ther 81: 1233, 2001.

  • 21

    Guralnik JM, Simonsick EM, Ferrucci L, et al: A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission. J Gerontol 49: M85, 1994.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Menz HB, Morris ME: Clinical determinants of plantar forces and pressures during walking in older people. Gait Posture 24: 229, 2006.

  • 23

    Williams DS, McClay IS: Measurements used to characterize the foot and the medial longitudinal arch: reliability and validity. Phys Ther 80: 864, 2000.

  • 24

    Pellecchia GL: Dual-task training reduces impact of cognitive task on postural sway. J Motor Behav 37: 239, 2005.

  • 25

    Cornwall MW, McPoil TG: Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility. J Foot Ankle Res 4: 4, 2011.

  • 26

    Mueller MJ, Menz HB, Landorf KB: A protocol for classifying normal- and flat-arched foot posture for research studies using clinical and radiographic measurments. J Foot Ankle Res 2: 22, 2009.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Cobb SC, Tis LL, Johnson BF, et al: The effect of forefoot varus on postural stability. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 34: 79, 2004.

  • 28

    Menz HB, Morris ME, Lord SR: Foot and ankle characteristics associated with impaired balance and functional ability in older people. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 60: 1546, 2005.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Cornwall MW, McPoil TG: Relative movement of the navicular bone during normal walking. Foot Ankle Int 20: 507, 1999.

  • 30

    Tessem S, Hagstrøm N, Fallang B: Weight distribution in standing and sitting positions, and weight transfer during reaching tasks, in seated stroke subjects and healthy subjects. Physiother Res Int 12: 82, 2007.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Static Foot Posture and Mobility Associated With Postural Sway in Elderly Women Using a Three-dimensional Foot Scanner

Mahshid Saghazadeh Department of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

Search for other papers by Mahshid Saghazadeh in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
Kenji Tsunoda Physical Fitness Research Institute, Meiji Yasuda Life Foundation of Health and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan.

Search for other papers by Kenji Tsunoda in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
Yuki Soma Department of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

Search for other papers by Yuki Soma in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 MS
, and
Tomohiro Okura Department of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

Search for other papers by Tomohiro Okura in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
Restricted access

Background

Maintaining balance is a complex phenomenon that is influenced by a range of sensorimotor factors. Foot posture and mobility may also influence balance and postural sway. Recently, three-dimensional foot scanners have been used to assess foot posture. This tool allows many individuals to be scanned quickly and easily and helps eliminate patients' radiation exposure. The objective of this study was to determine whether static foot posture and mobility are independently associated with postural sway in a large community sample of older women using objective measures of balance status and the recently launched technology of three-dimensional foot scanning.

Methods

This cross-sectional study included 140 community-dwelling elderly women (mean ± SD age, 73.9 ± 5.1 years) recruited in Kasama City, Japan. The postural sway variables were total path length and area and were measured by force plate. We measured static foot posture, sitting and standing navicular height, and mobility using a three-dimensional foot scanner. Foot mobility was determined as the amount of vertical navicular excursion between the positions of the subtalar joint, from neutral in sitting position to relaxed bilateral standing.

Results

After adjusting for potential cofounders, analysis of covariance revealed that sitting navicular height was associated with total path length (P = .038) and area (P = .031). Foot mobility was associated with total path length (P = .018).

Conclusions

These findings suggest that sitting navicular height and foot mobility are associated with postural sway in elderly women and might be an important factor in defining balance control in older adults.

Corresponding author: Mahshid Saghazadeh, PhD, Department of Health and Sport Sciences, Tennodai 1-1-1, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8574, Japan. (E-mail: mahshid.saghazadeh@gmail.com)