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Reduction in Size and Number of Plantar Verrucae in Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Individuals After the Implementation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

Endri Afesllari Division of Preclinical Sciences, New York College of Podiatric Medicine, New York, NY. Dr. Afesllari is now with Henry Ford Macomb Hospital, Clinton Township, Michigan. Dr. Miller is now with Atlantic Health System/Morristown Medical Center, Morristown, NJ.

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Timothy J. Miller Division of Preclinical Sciences, New York College of Podiatric Medicine, New York, NY. Dr. Afesllari is now with Henry Ford Macomb Hospital, Clinton Township, Michigan. Dr. Miller is now with Atlantic Health System/Morristown Medical Center, Morristown, NJ.

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Michael J. Huchital Division of Preclinical Sciences, New York College of Podiatric Medicine, New York, NY. Dr. Afesllari is now with Henry Ford Macomb Hospital, Clinton Township, Michigan. Dr. Miller is now with Atlantic Health System/Morristown Medical Center, Morristown, NJ.

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Christy M. King Kaiser Permanente Oakland, Oakland, CA.

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James S. Johnston Orthopedic Surgery Specialists, Aberdeen, SD.

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Peter Barbosa Division of Preclinical Sciences, New York College of Podiatric Medicine, New York, NY. Dr. Afesllari is now with Henry Ford Macomb Hospital, Clinton Township, Michigan. Dr. Miller is now with Atlantic Health System/Morristown Medical Center, Morristown, NJ.

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Background

Implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) significantly increased the life expectancy of those living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Except for prevalence, scientific reports regarding clinical manifestations of plantar verrucae in the post-HAART era are lacking. The objective of this study was to compare clinical manifestations of plantar verrucae between HIV-infected and noninfected individuals and then to compare these findings with those observed before the implementation of HAART.

Methods

Nineteen patients with plantar verrucae (ten with HIV and nine without HIV) were examined to determine the size, number, and clinical type of verrucae present. The two groups were first compared with each other and then with previously collected data from a similar analysis conducted in 1995, before the implementation of HAART. Statistical significance was determined using the Fisher exact test or the Wilcoxon rank sum test.

Results

No significant differences were observed in the size, number, or clinical type of verrucae between HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients. Compared with the 1995 data, there was a significant decrease in the number of verrucae lesions per individual and a nonsignificant decrease in the average size of verrucae in HIV-positive patients.

Conclusions

Study results indicate that the implementation of HAART has impacted the clinical manifestations of plantar verrucae in HIV-positive individuals. Further analyses with a larger number of patients are required to confirm and substantiate these findings.

Corresponding author: Peter Barbosa, PhD, Division of Preclinical Sciences, New York College of Podiatric Medicine, 53 E 124th St, New York, NY 10035. (E-mail: pbarbosa@nycpm.edu)