CateriniR, FarsettiP, TarantinoU, et al: Arthrodesis of the toe joints with an intramedullary cannulated screw for correction of hammertoe deformity. Foot Ankle Int25: 256, 2004.1513293510.1177/107110070402500411)| false
O'KaneC, KilmartinT: Review of proximal interphalangeal joint excisional arthroplasty for the correction of second hammer toe deformity in 100 cases. Foot Ankle Int26: 320, 2005.1582921610.1177/107110070502600408)| false
CheungJT-M, ZhangM, LeungAK-L, et al: Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the foot during standing: a material sensitivity study. J Biomech38: 1045, 2005.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.05.03515797586)| false
García-AznarJM, KuiperJH, Gómez-BenitoMJ, et al: Computational simulation of fracture healing: influence of interfragmentary movement on the callus growth. J Biomech40: 1467, 2007.1693060910.1016/j.jbiomech.2006.06.013)| false
García-GonzálezA, BayodJ, Prados-FrutosJC, et al: Finite-element simulation of flexor digitorum longus or flexor digitorum brevis tendon transfer for the treatment of claw toe deformity. J Biomech42: 1697, 2009.
García-GonzálezA, BayodJ, Prados-FrutosJC, et al: Finite-element simulation of flexor digitorum longus or flexor digitorum brevis tendon transfer for the treatment of claw toe deformity. J Biomech42: 1697, 2009.10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.04.031)| false
BayodJ, Becerro-de-Bengoa-VallejoR, Losa-IglesiasME, et al: Mechanical stress redistribution in the calcaneus after autologous bone harvesting. J Biomech45: 1219, 2012.2234911510.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.01.043)| false
SebastianH, DattaB, MaffulliN, et al: Mechanical properties of reconstructed Achilles tendon with transfer of peroneus brevis or flexor hallucis longus tendon. J Foot Ankle Surg46: 424, 2007.10.1053/j.jfas.2007.07.003)| false
GefenA, Megido-RavidM, ItzchakY, et al: Biomechanical analysis of the three-dimensional foot structure during gait: a basic tool for clinical applications. J Biomech Eng122: 630, 2000.10.1115/1.131890411192385)| false
We used finite element analysis to study the mechanical displacements at three planes of the second through fourth hammertoes during the push-off phase of gait using a new neutral or 10° angled memory alloy intramedullary implant (FDA K070598) used for proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis.
After geometric reconstruction of the foot skeleton from computed tomographic images of a 36-year-old man, an intramedullary implant was positioned in the virtual model at the neutral and 10° angled positions at the proximal interphalangeal joints of the second through fourth hammertoes during the push-off phase of gait. The obtained displacement results in three planes were compared with those derived from the nonsurgical foot model using finite element analysis.
These results support the successful use of either a neutral or angled implant for proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis, with the neutral implant yielding slightly better results.
The neutral implant reduced vertical displacement to a greater extent than did the angled implant. We also highlight the potential risk of iatrogenic curly toe when performing a proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis using an angled implant specifically at the fourth toe.
Corresponding author: Marta Elena Losa Iglesias, PhD, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Avenida de Atenas s/n, Alcorcón, Madrid 28922, Spain. (E-mail: email@example.com)