• 1

    Hsu YC, Gung YW: Using an optimization approach to design an insole for lowering plantar fascia stress: a finite element study. Ann Biomed Eng 36: 1345, 2008.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Jackson L, Binning J, Potter J: Plantar pressures in rheumatoid arthritis using prefabricated metatarsal padding. JAPMA 94: 239, 2004.

  • 3

    Goske S, Erdemir A, Petre M, et al: Reduction of plantar heel pressures: insole design using finite element analysis. J Biomech 39: 2363, 2006.

  • 4

    Richie DH: “Athletic Socks,” in Athletic Footwear and Orthoses in Sports Medicine, p 69, edited by MB Werd, EL Knihgt, Springer, New York, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Veves A, Masson EA, Fernando DJ, et al: Use of experimental padded hosiery to reduce abnormal foot pressures in diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Care 12: 653, 1989.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Veves A, Masson EA, Fernando DJ, et al: Studies of experimental hosiery in diabetic neuropathic patients with high foot pressures. Diabet Med 7: 324, 1990.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Veves A, Hay EM, Boulton AJM: The use of specially padded hosiery in the painful rheumatoid foot. Foot (Edinb) 1: 175, 1992.

  • 8

    Flot S, Hill V, Yamada W: The effect of padded hosiery in reducing forefoot plantar pressures. Low Extrem 2: 201, 1995.

  • 9

    Donaghue VM, Sarnow MR, Guirini JM: Longitudinal in-shoe foot pressure relief achieved by specially designed footwear in high risk diabetic patients. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 31: 109, 1996.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Garrow A, van Schie C, Boulton A: Efficacy of multilayered hosiery in reducing in-shoe plantar pressure in high risk patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care 28: 2001, 2005.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Blackwell B, Aldridge R, Jacob S: A comparison of plantar pressure in patients with diabetic foot ulcers using different hosiery. Int J Low Extrem Wounds 1: 174, 2002.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Dai X-Q, Li Y, Zhang M, et al: Effect of sock on biomechanical responses of foot during walking. Clin Biomech 21: 314, 2006.

  • 13

    Blackmore T, Ball N, Scurr J: The effect of socks on vertical and anteroposterior ground reaction forces in walking and running. The Foot 21: 1, 2011.

  • 14

    Howarth S, Rome K: A short-term study of shock-attenuation in different sock types. Foot 6: 5, 1996.

  • 15

    Herring KM, Richie DH Jr: Friction blisters and sock fiber composition: a double-blind study. JAPMA 80: 63, 1990.

  • 16

    Herring KM, Richie DH Jr: Comparison of cotton and acrylic socks using a generic cushion sole design for runners. JAPMA 83: 515, 1993.

  • 17

    Brown J, Brown A: Nonprescription, padded, lightweight support socks in the treatment of mild to moderate lower extremity venous insufficiency. J Am Osteopath Assoc 95: 173, 1995.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Ali A, Caine MP, Snow BG: Graduated compression stockings: physiological and perceptual responses during and after exercise. J Sports Sci 25: 413, 2007.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Zou D, Mueller MJ, Lott DJ: Effect of peak pressure and pressure gradient on subsurface shear stresses in the neuropathic foot. J Biomech 40: 883, 2007.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Sanders JE, Cagle JC, Harrison DS, et al: Amputee socks: how does sock ply relate to sock thickness? Prosthet Orthot Int 36: 77, 2012.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Bakhtiari M, ShaikhzadehNajar S, et al: Compression properties of weft knitted fabrics consisting of shrinkable and non-shrinkable acrylic fibers. Fiber Polym 7: 295, 2006.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Spencer DJ: Knitting Technology, p 90, Woodhead, Cambridge, England, 1989.

  • 23

    Kim YT, Lee JS: Normal pressures and reliability of the Gaitview® system in healthy adults. Prosthet Orthot Int 36: 159, 2012.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Plantar Static Pressure Distribution in Normal Feet Using Cotton Socks with Different Structures

Zeynab Soltanzadeh Department of Textile Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Search for other papers by Zeynab Soltanzadeh in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
Saeed Shaikhzadeh Najar Department of Textile Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Search for other papers by Saeed Shaikhzadeh Najar in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
Mohammad Haghpanahi Department of Mechanics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Search for other papers by Mohammad Haghpanahi in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
, and
Mohammd Reza Mohajeri-Tehrani Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Search for other papers by Mohammd Reza Mohajeri-Tehrani in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
Restricted access

Background:

The major goal of investigating plantar pressure in patients with pain or those at risk for skin injury is to reduce pressure under prominent metatarsal heads, especially the first and second metatarsals. In research, the insole is used to reduce plantar pressure by increasing the contact area in the midfoot region, which, in turn, induces an uncomfortable feeling near the arch during walking. It is deduced that sock structure can redistribute plantar pressure distribution.

Methods:

Seven sock types with seven structures (plain, single cross tuck, mock rib inlay, cross miss, mock rib, double cross tuck, and double cross miss) for the sole area were produced. A plantar pressure measurement device was used to measure plantar static pressure in ten participants. The barefoot plantar pressure distribution was compared with the plantar pressure distribution with socks.

Results:

In the seven sock samples, the mean plantar pressure of the cross miss and mock rib structures at high plantar pressure zones (toe and first through fourth metatarsal bone regions) were decreased, and, as a result, the pressure shifted to relatively low pressure zones (fifth metatarsal bone and midfoot regions).

Conclusions:

These results indicate that wearing socks with cross miss and mock rib structures will reduce mean plantar pressure values compared with the barefoot condition in high plantar pressure zones. In general, the results suggest that mean plantar pressure is redistributed from high to low plantar pressure zones.

Corresponding author: Saeed Shaikhzadeh Najar, Department of Textile Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez, Tehran, +98, Iran. (E-mail: saeed@aut.ac.ir)