• 1

    Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics: Current Population Survey, June 2010: Fertility Supplement, US Census Bureau, Washington, DC, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Nyska M, Sofer D, Porat A, et al: Plantar foot pressures in pregnant women. Isr J Med Sci 33: 139, 1997.

  • 3

    Vullo VJ, Richardson JK, Hurvitz EA: Hip, knee, and foot pain during pregnancy and the postpartum period. J Fam Pract 43: 63, 1996.

  • 4

    Weiss G, Goldsmith LT, Sachdev R, et al: Elevated first-trimester serum relaxin concentrations in pregnant women following ovarian stimulation predict prematurity risk and preterm delivery. Obstet Gynecol 82: 821, 1993.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Marnach M: Characterization of the relationship between joint laxity and maternal hormones in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 101: 331, 2003.

  • 6

    Foti T, Davids JR, Bagley A: A biomechanical analysis of gait during pregnancy. J Bone Joint Surg Am 82: 625, 2000.

  • 7

    Borg-Stein J, Dugan SA, Gruber J: Musculoskeletal aspects of pregnancy. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 84: 180, 2005.

  • 8

    Ponnapula P, Boberg JS: Lower extremity changes experienced during pregnancy. J Foot Ankle Surg 49: 452, 2010.

  • 9

    Frost HM: Muscle, bone, and the Utah paradigm: a 1999 overview. Med Sci Sports Exerc: 2000; 32: 911, 1999.

  • 10

    Ritchie JR: Orthopedic considerations during pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol 46: 456, 2003.

  • 11

    Bird AR, Menz HB, Hyde CC: The effect of pregnancy on footprint parameters: a prospective investigation. JAPMA 89: 405, 1999.

  • 12

    Gilleard WL: Trunk motion and gait characteristics of pregnant women when walking: report of a longitudinal study with a control group. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 13: 71, 2013.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    McCrory JL, Chambers AJ, Daftary A, et al: The pregnant “waddle”: an evaluation of torso kinematics in pregnancy. J Biomech 47: 2964, 2014.

  • 14

    Ribeiro AP, Trombini-Souza F, de Camargo NevesSacco I, et al: Changes in the plantar pressure distribution during gait throughout gestation. JAPMA 101: 415, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Karadag-Saygi E, Unlu-Ozkan F, Basgul A: Plantar pressure and foot pain in the last trimester of pregnancy. Foot Ankle Int 31: 153, 2010.

  • 16

    Wetz HH, Hentschel J, Drerup B, et al: Changes in shape and size of the foot during pregnancy. Orthopade 35: 1124, 2006.

  • 17

    Alvarez R, Stokes IA, Asprinio DE, et al: Dimensional changes of the feet in pregnancy. J Bone Joint Surg Am 70: 271, 1988.

  • 18

    Segal NA, Boyer ER, Teran-Yengle P, et al: Pregnancy leads to lasting changes in foot structure. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 92: 232, 2013.

  • 19

    Gijon-Nogueron GA, Gavilan-Diaz M, Valle-Funes V, et al: Anthropometric foot changes during pregnancy: a pilot study. JAPMA 103: 314, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Root M, Orien W, Weed J: Normal and Abnormal Function of the Foot, Clinical Biomechanics Corp, Los Angeles, 1977.

  • 21

    Block RA, Hess LA, Timpano EV, et al: Physiologic changes in the foot during pregnancy. JAPMA 75: 297, 1985.

  • 22

    Gaymer C, Whalley H, Achten J, et al: Midfoot plantar pressure significantly increases during late gestation. Foot (Edinb) 19: 114, 2009.

  • 23

    Bohemen EK, Gendi NS: Flatfeet in pregnancy. Br J Rheumatol 35: 396, 1996.

  • 24

    Jelen K, Tetkova Z, Halounova L, et al: Shape characteristics of the foot arch: dynamics in the pregnancy period. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 26: 752, 2005.

  • 25

    Calguneri M, Bird HA, Wright V: Changes in joint laxity occurring during pregnancy. Ann Rheum Dis 41: 126, 1982.

  • 26

    Clapp JF III: Long-term outcome after exercising throughout pregnancy: fitness and cardiovascular risk. Am J Obstet Gynecol 199: 489, 2008.

  • 27

    Fishbein EG, Phillips M: How safe is exercise during pregnancy? J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 19: 45, 1990.

  • 28

    Hall DC, Kaufmann DA: Effects of aerobic and strength conditioning on pregnancy outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 157: 1199, 1987.

  • 29

    Ostgaard HC, Zetherstrom G, Roos-Hansson E, et al: Reduction of back and posterior pelvic pain in pregnancy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 19: 894, 1994.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Gravante G, Russo G, Pomara F, et al: Comparison of ground reaction forces between obese and control young adults during quiet standing on a baropodometric platform. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 18: 780, 2003.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Lymbery JK, Gilleard W: The stance phase of walking during late pregnancy: temporospatial and ground reaction force variables. JAPMA 95: 247, 2005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Musculoskeletal Effects of Pregnancy on the Lower Extremity

A Literature Review

Derek S. Anselmo Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.

Search for other papers by Derek S. Anselmo in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BS
,
Ebony Love Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.

Search for other papers by Ebony Love in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DPM
,
Dana N. Tango Gait Study Center, Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.

Search for other papers by Dana N. Tango in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 MPH
, and
Lesly Robinson Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.

Search for other papers by Lesly Robinson in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DPM
Restricted access

Pregnant women are often burdened with musculoskeletal symptoms of the lower extremity due to the physical, hormonal, and anatomical changes that occur throughout pregnancy. These symptoms are associated with musculoskeletal dysfunctions, modified gait, joint laxity, muscle imbalance, and increased body mass. This article reviews the literature involving the lower-extremity changes experienced by women during pregnancy and their respective pathophysiologic causes.

Corresponding author: Ebony Love, DPM, Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine, 148 N 8th St, Philadelphia, PA 19107. (E-mail: elove@temple.edu)