• 1

    Pauk J, Ezerskiy V, Raso JV, et al: Epidemiologic factors affecting plantar arch development in children with flat feet. JAPMA 102: 114, 2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Fabry G: Clinical practice: static, axial, and rotational deformities of the lower extremities in children. Eur J Pediatr 169: 529, 2010.

  • 3

    Moraleda L, Mubarak SJ: Flexible flatfoot: differences in the relative alignment of each segment of the foot between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. J Pediatr Orthop 31: 421, 2011.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Dare DM, Dodwell ER: Pediatric flatfoot: cause, epidemiology, assessment, and treatment. Curr Opin Pediatr 26: 93, 2014.

  • 5

    Puszczałowska-Lizis E: Correlations between the plantographic characteristics of feet and the explosive power of the lower limbs in 20-27 years old women. Physiotherapy 19: 9, 2011.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Ali MMI, Mohamed MSE: Dynamic postural balance in subjects with and without flat foot. Bull Fac Phys Ther 16: 7, 2011.

  • 7

    Kim HY: Effect of arch pads on ankle joint motion during the stance phases of walking and running. J Phys Ther Sci 24: 1329, 2012.

  • 8

    Kosashvili Y, Fridman T, Backstein D, et al: The correlation between pes planus and anterior knee or intermittent low back pain. Foot Ankle Int 29: 910, 2008.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Halabchi F, Mazaheri R, Mirshahi M, et al: Pediatric flexible flatfoot: clinical aspects and algorithmic approach. Iran J Pediatr 23: 247, 2013.

  • 10

    Steele JR, Riddiford-Harland DL, Mickle KJ : “Excessive Weight Bearing Compromises Foot Structure and Function Across the Lifespan,” in The Mechanobiology of Obesity and Related Diseases, p 149, Springer International Publishing AG, Cham, Switzerland, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Evans AM, Rome K: A Cochrane review of the evidence for non-surgical interventions for flexible pediatric flat feet. Eur J Phys Rehab Med 47: 69, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Frances JM, Feldman DS: Management of idiopathic and nonidiopathic flatfoot. Instr Course Lect 64: 429, 2015.

  • 13

    Nemeth B: The diagnosis and management of common childhood orthopedic disorders. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 41: 2, 2011.

  • 14

    Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, et al: Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 320: 1240, 2000.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Kanatli U, Yetkin H, Cila E: Footprint and radiographic analysis of the feet. J Pediatr Orthop 21: 225, 2001.

  • 16

    Walicka-Cupryś K, Rachwał M, Paczesniak-Jost A, et al: Foot Arching in Adults [in Polish], Young Sport Sci Ukraine, 3: 46, 2013.

  • 17

    Zembaty A: Physiotherapy, Kasper Sp. z o.o., Krakow, Poland, 2002.

  • 18

    Homayouni K, Karimian H, Naseri M, et al: Prevalence of flexible flatfoot among school-age girls. Shiraz E Med J 16: 18005, 2015.

  • 19

    Umar MBT, Tafida RU: Prevalence of flatfoot and anthropometric comparison between flat and normal feet in the Hausa ethnic group of Nigeria. JAPMA 103: 369, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Szczepanowska-Wołowiec B, Wołowiec P, Kotela P: Faulty posture among population of children aged 10-12 in Malow district. Med Stud 17: 41, 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Tenenbaum S, Hershkovich O, Gordon B, et al: Flexible pes planus in adolescents body mass index, body height, and gender: an epidemiological study. Foot Ankle Int 34: 811, 2013.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Jankowicz-Szymanska A, Mikolajczyk E: Effect of excessive body weight on foot arch changes in preschoolers: a 2-year follow-up study. JAPMA 105: 313, 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Mickle KJ, Steele JR, Munro BJ: The feet of overweight and obese young children: are they flat or fat? Obesity 14: 1949, 2006.

  • 24

    Riddiford-Harland DL, Steele JR, Baur LA: Are the feet of obese children fat or flat? revisiting the debate. Int J Obes (Lond) 35: 115, 2010.

  • 25

    Stolzman S, Irby MB, Callahan AB, et al: Pes planus and paediatric obesity: a systematic review of the literature. Clin Obes 5: 52, 2015.

  • 26

    Ezema CI, Abaraogu UO, Okafor GO: Flat foot and associated factors among primary school children: a cross-sectional study. Hong Kong Physiotherap J 32: 13, 2014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Maggio AB, Martin XE, Gasser CS, et al: Medical and non-medical complications among children and adolescents with excessive body weight. BMC Pediatr 14: 1, 2014.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Nurzynska D, Di Meglio F, Castaldo C, et al: Flatfoot in children: anatomy of decision making. Ital J Anatom Embryol 117: 98, 2012.

  • 29

    Brodersen A, Pedersen B, Reimers J: Foot deformities and relation to the length of leg muscles in Danish children aged 3-17 years. Ugeskr Laeger 155: 3914, 1993.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    DiGiovanni C, Greisberg J: Foot and Ankle: Core Knowledge in Orthopaedics, Elsevier Urban & Partner, Wroclaw, Poland, 2007.

  • 31

    Rose KJ, Burns J, North KN: Factors associated with foot and ankle strength in healthy preschool-age children and age-matched cases of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type IA. J Child Neurol 25: 463, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Shibuya N, Kitterman RT, LaFontaine J: Demographic, physical, and radiographic factors associated with functional flatfoot deformity. J Foot Ankle Surg 53: 168, 2014.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Burns J, Crosbie J: Weight bearing ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in idiopathic pes cavus compared to normal and pes planus feet. The Foot 15: 91, 2005.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Shultz SP, Sitler MR, Tierney RT, et al: Consequences of pediatric obesity on the foot and ankle complex. JAPMA 102: 5, 2012.

Correlations Among Foot Arching, Ankle Dorsiflexion Range of Motion, and Obesity Level in Primary School Children

Agnieszka Jankowicz-Szymanska Institute of Health Sciences, State Higher Vocational School, Tarnow, Poland.

Search for other papers by Agnieszka Jankowicz-Szymanska in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
Edyta Mikolajczyk Department of Physiotherapy, University of Physical Education, Krakow, Poland.

Search for other papers by Edyta Mikolajczyk in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
, and
Katarzyna Wodka Institute of Health Sciences, State Higher Vocational School, Tarnow, Poland.

Search for other papers by Katarzyna Wodka in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 MA

Background:

This study sought to assess the prevalence of flat feet in primary school children and to find correlations among arch height, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM), and obesity level.

Methods:

The 400 children aged 10 to 12 years who took part in the study had their body height, weight, and fat percentage measured. Based on these measurements, body mass index was calculated and weight status was categorized for all of the participants. The height of the longitudinal arch of the foot was measured on a computerized podoscope and given in Clarke's angles. Dorsiflexion ROM was assessed with the child in the nonweightbearing sitting position with the knees 90° flexed. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation were implemented to analyze the data. Intergroup differences were assessed by Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, and post hoc Tukey tests. Significance was accepted at P = .05.

Results:

Flat feet were found in 36% of participants; limited ROM was found in both feet in 25% of participants and in one foot in 12%. No significant differences in dorsiflexion ROM in children with high-arched, normal, and flat feet were revealed. Excessive body weight was disclosed in 21% of participants. Overweight and obese children had significantly lower foot arches and notably smaller ankle dorsiflexion ROM than those with normal weight.

Conclusions:

Ankle dorsiflexion ROM is similar in children with high-arched, normal, and flat feet. However, limited dorsiflexion ROM is more often found in children with excessive weight.

Corresponding author: Agnieszka Jankowicz-Szymanska, PhD, Institute of Health Sciences, State Higher Vocational School in Tarnow, ul. A. Mickiewicza 8, Tarnow, 33-100, Poland. (E-mail: jankowiczszymanska@gmail.com)