Bingefors K, Isacson D: Epidemiology, co-morbidity, and impact on health-related quality of life of self-reported headache and musculoskeletal pain: a gender perspective. Eur J Pain 8: 435, 2004.
van der Waal JM, Bot SD, Terwee CB, et al: The incidences of and consultation rate for lower extremity complaints in general practice. Ann Rheum Dis 65: 809, 2006.
Picavet HS, Schouten JS: Musculoskeletal pain in the Netherlands: prevalences, consequences and risk groups, the DMC(3)-study. Pain 102: 167, 2003.
Miranda H, Viikari-Juntura E, Martikainen R, et al: A prospective study on knee pain and its risk factors. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 10: 623, 2002.
Gureje O, Von Korff M, Simon GE, et al: Persistent pain and well-being: a World Health Organization study in primary care. JAMA 280: 147, 1998.
Gureje O, Simon GE, Von Korff M: A cross-national study of the course of persistent pain in primary care. Pain 92: 195, 2001.
Dufour AB, Broe KE, Nguyen US, et al: Foot pain: is current or past shoewear a factor? Arthritis Rheum 61: 1352, 2009.
Thomas MJ, Roddy E, Zhang W, et al: The population prevalence of foot and ankle pain in middle and old age: a systematic review. Pain 152: 2870, 2011.
Munteanu SE, Zammit GV, Menz HB. Factors associated with foot pain severity and foot-related disability in individuals with first metatarsophalangeal joint OA. Rheumatology (Oxford) 51: 176, 2012.
Keen HI, Redmond A, Wakefield RJ, et al: An ultrasonographic study of metatarsophalangeal joint pain: synovitis, structural pathology and their relationship to symptoms and function. Ann Rheum Dis 70: 2140, 2011.
Otter SJ, Lucas K, Springett K, et al: Foot pain in rheumatoid arthritis prevalence, risk factors and management: an epidemiological study. Clin Rheumatol 29: 255, 2010.
Menz HB, Dufour AB, Riskowski JL, et al: Foot posture, foot function and low back pain: the Framingham Foot Study. Rheumatology (Oxford) 52: 2275, 2013.
Jungmann PM, Nevitt MC, Baum T, et al: Relationship of unilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) to contralateral and ipsilateral knee joint degeneration: a longitudinal 3T MRI study from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). Osteoarthritis Cartilage 23: 1144, 2015.
Cotofana S, Wirth W, Pena Rossi C, et al: Contralateral knee effect on self-reported knee-specific function and global functional assessment: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 67: 374, 2015.
Steidle-Kloc E, Wirth W, Glass NA, et al: Is pain in one knee associated with isometric muscle strength in the contralateral limb? data from the osteoarthritis initiative. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 94: 792, 2015.
Wang W, Geller JA, Nyce JD, et al: Does ipsilateral knee pain improve after hip arthroplasty? Clin Orthop Relat Res 470: 578, 2012.
Dawber T, Meadors G, Moore F: Epidemiological approaches to heart disease: the Framingham Study. Am J Public Health Nations Health 41: 279, 1951.
Feinleib M, Kannel W, Garrison R, et al: The Framingham Offspring Study: design and preliminary data. Prev Med 4: 518, 1975.
Hagedorn TJ, Dufour AB, Riskowski JL, et al: Foot disorders, foot posture, and foot function: the Framingham foot study. PLoS One 8: e74364, 2013.
Riegger-Krugh C, Keysor JJ: Skeletal malalignments of the lower quarter: correlated and compensatory motions and postures. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 23: 164, 1996.
Clinical observations note that foot pain can be linked to contralateral pain at the knee or hip, yet we are unaware of any community-based studies that have investigated the sidedness of pain. Because clinic-based patient samples are often different from the general population, the purpose of this study was to determine whether knee or hip pain is more prevalent with contralateral foot pain than with ipsilateral foot pain in a population-based cohort.
Framingham Foot Study participants (2002–2008) with information on foot, knee, and hip pain were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Foot pain was queried as pain, aching, or stiffness on most days. Using a manikin diagram, participants indicated whether they had experienced pain, aching, or stiffness at the hip or knee and specified the side of any reported pain. Sex-specific multinomial logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for the association of foot pain with knee and hip pain, adjusting for age and body mass index.
In the 2,181 participants, the mean ± SD age was 64 ± 9 years; 56% were women, and the mean body mass index was 28.6. For men and women, bilateral foot pain was associated with increased odds of knee pain on any side (ORs = 2–3; P < .02). Men with foot pain were more likely to have ipsilateral hip pain (ORs = 2–4; P<.03), whereas women with bilateral foot pain were more likely to have hip pain on any side (OR = 2–3; P < .02).
Bilateral foot pain was associated with increased odds of knee and hip pain in men and women. For ipsilateral foot and hip pain, men had a stronger effect compared with women.