Blendon RJ, Benson JM, Hero JO: Public trust in physicians: U.S. medicine in international perspective. N Engl J Med 371: 1570, 2014.
Arnold L: Assessing professional behavior: yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Acad Med 77: 502, 2002.
Ha JF, Longnecker N: Doctor-patient communication: a review. Ochsner J 10: 38, 2010.
Neumann M, Edelhauser F, Tauschel D, et al: Empathy decline and its reasons: a systematic review of studies with medical students and residents. Acad Med 86: 996, 2011.
Colliver JA, Swartz MH, Robbs RS, et al: Relationship between clinical competence and interpersonal and communication skills in standardized-patient assessment. Acad Med 74: 271, 1999.
Green M, Zick A, Thomas JX: Commentary: accurate medical student performance evaluations and professionalism assessment: “Yes, we can!” Acad Med 89: 1105, 2014.
Papadakis MS, Teherani A, Banach MA: Disciplinary action by medical boards and prior behavior in medical school. N Engl J Med 353: 2673, 2005.
Ferguson RP: Professionalism: hard to measure but you know it when you see it. J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2014, 4: 24226.
Bhugra D, Malik A: “Experts and Expertise,” in Professionalism in Mental Healthcare, p 1, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2011.
Woollicroft JO, Howell JD, Patel BP, et al: Resident-patient interactions: the humanistic qualities of internal medicine residents assessed by patients, attending physicians, program supervisors and nurses. Acad Med 69: 216, 1994.
Boon K, Turner J: Ethical and professional conduct of medical students: review of current assessment measures and controversies. J Med Ethics 30: 221, 2004.
Boulet JR, Smee SM, Dillon GF, et al: The use of standardized patient assessments for certification and licensure decisions. Sim Healthcare 4: 35, 2009.
Zanetti M, Keller L, Mazor K, et al: using standardized patients to assess professionalism: a generalizability study. Teach Learn Med 22: 274, 2010.
Khan AS, Qureshi R, Acemoglu H, et al: Comparison of assessment scores of candidates for communication skills in an OSCE, by examiners, candidates and simulated patients. Creative Educ 3: 931, 2012.
Passiment M, Sacks H, Huang G: Medical simulation in medical education: results of an AAMC survey. Association of American Medical Colleges Web site. Available at: https://www.aamc.org/download/259760/data. Published September 2011. Accessed March 22, 2016.
Mahoney J, Vardaxis V, Anwar N, et al: Relationship between faculty and standardized patient assessment scores of podiatric medical students during a standardized performance assessment laboratory. JAPMA 106: 116, 2016.
Ginsburg S, McGaghie W: “Evaluation and Grading of Students,” in Guidebook for Clerkship Directors, 3rd Ed, edited by RME Fincher, p 133, Alliance for Clinical Education, Omaha, 2005.
Makoul G: Essential elements of communication in medical encounters: the Kalamazoo Consensus Statement. Acad Med 76: 390, 2001.
Schirmer JM, Mauksch L, Lang F, et al: Assessing communication competence: a review of current tools. Fam Med 37: 184, 2005.
Liew S, Dutta S, Sidhu JK, et al: Assessors for communication skills: SP's or healthcare professionals. Med Teach 35: 626, 2014.
Cooper C, Mira M: Who should assess medical students' communication skills: their academic teachers or their patients? Med Educ 32: 419, 1998.
Jah V, Bekker HL, Duffy SRG: A systematic review of studies assessing and facilitating attitudes towards professionalism in medicine. Med Educ 41: 822, 2007.
Epstein RM, Dannefer IF, Nofziger AC, et al: Comprehensive assessment of professional competence: the Rochester experiment. Teach Learn Med 16: 186, 2004.
Jonsson A, Svingby G: The use of scoring rubrics: reliability, validity and educational consequences. Educ Res Rev 2: 130, 2007.
Thorndike EL: A constant error in psychological ratings. J Appl Psychol 4: 25, 1920.
Regehr G, MacRae H, Reznick RK et al: Comparing the psychometric properties of checklists and global rating scales for assessing performance on an OSCE-format examination. Acad Med 73: 993, 1998.
Thistlethwaite J, Spencer J: “Assessing Professionalism,” in Professionalism in Medicine, p 200, Radcliffe Publishing Ltd, Oxford, 2008.
Van Zanten M, Boulet JR, Norcini J: Using a standardized patient assessment to measure professional attributes. Med Educ 39: 20, 2005.
Ginsburg S, Regehr G, Hatala R, et al: Context, conflict, and resolution: a new conceptual framework for evaluating professionalism. Acad Med 75: S6, 2000.
This study examined the differences between faculty and trained standardized patient (SP) evaluations on student professionalism during a second-year podiatric medicine standardized simulated patient encounter.
Forty-nine second-year podiatric medicine students were evaluated for their professionalism behavior. Eleven SPs performed an assessment in real-time, and one faculty member performed a secondary assessment after observing a videotape of the encounter. Five domains were chosen for evaluation from a validated professionalism assessment tool.
Significant differences were identified in the professionalism domains of “build a relationship” (P = .008), “gather information” (P = .001), and share information (P = .002), where the faculty scored the students higher than the SP for 24.5%, 18.9%, and 26.5% of the cases, respectively. In addition, the faculty scores were higher than the SP scores in all of the “gather information” subdomains; however, the difference in scores was significant only in the “question appropriately” (P = .001) and “listen and clarify” (P = .003) subdomains.
This study showed that professionalism scores for second-year podiatric medical students during a simulated patient encounter varied significantly between faculty and SPs. Further consideration needs to be given to determine the source of these differences.