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Teaching of Manual Clinical Skills in Podiatric Medicine

Theory and Recommendations

Ryan S. Causby International Center for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia. Drs. McDonnell and Hillier are now with Sansom Institute of Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.

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Lloyd Reed School of Clinical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Australia.

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Michelle N. McDonnell International Center for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia. Drs. McDonnell and Hillier are now with Sansom Institute of Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.

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Susan L. Hillier International Center for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia. Drs. McDonnell and Hillier are now with Sansom Institute of Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.

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In the podiatric medicine profession, there are a variety of manual tasks that require precision and skill beyond what would be usually expected in everyday living. It is the expectation of employers, regulatory bodies, and the public that graduating podiatric physicians sufficiently meet certain minimum competencies for that profession, including those for manual skills. However, teaching and evaluation methods seem to be inconsistent between countries, institutions, and programs. This may be the consequence of uncertainty regarding the safest and most effective methods to do so. A review of available international literature pertaining to psychomotor learning across a range of health professions was undertaken. As a result of this broad review, we present herein the available evidence and make recommendations for the teaching of psychomotor skills in the podiatric medicine profession. Specific aspects considered important include methods of teaching, practice, and feedback.

Corresponding author: Ryan S. Causby, PhD, International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Level 8 Centenary Building, North Terrace, Adelaide SA 5000, Australia. (E-mail: Ryan.Causby@unisa.edu.au)