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Etiology of Onychomycosis in Patients in Turkey

Fatma Pelin Cengiz Department of Dermatology, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey.

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Bengu Cevirgen Cemil Department of Dermatology, Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

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Nazan Emiroglu Department of Dermatology, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey.

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Anil Gulsel Bahali Department of Dermatology, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey.

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Dilek Biyik Ozkaya Department of Dermatology, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey.

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Ozlem Su Department of Dermatology, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey.

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Nahide Onsun Department of Dermatology, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey.

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Background:

Onychomycosis is a chronic nail infection caused by dermatophytes, Candida, nondermatophyte molds, and Trichosporon. The purpose of this study was to identify the underlying pathogen in patients with onychomycosis in our region.

Methods:

A retrospective analysis of 225 cases with onychomycosis, diagnosed over a 27-month period at the Department of Dermatoveneorology, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey, and confirmed with culture, was performed.

Results:

Patient age ranged from 2 to 87 years (mean ± SD, 41.59 ± 17.61), and female patients were more commonly affected (120 cases, 53.3%) than male patients. Lateral and distal subungual onychomycosis was detected in 180 cases (80%). Etiologic agents were as follows: Trichophyton rubrum, 77 cases (34.2%); Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 30 cases (13.3%), Candida albicans, 28 cases (12.4%); Candida parapsilosis, 25 cases (11.1%); Acremonium species, one case (0.4%); Aspergillus species, two cases (0.9%); Fusarium species, four cases (1.3%); and Trichosporon species, three cases (1.3%).

Conclusions:

The most frequent isolated etiologic agents were T rubrum for toenails and C albicans for fingernails.

Corresponding author: Fatma Pelin Cengiz, MD, Department of Dermatology, Bezmialem Vakif University, 34710 Istanbul, Turkey. (E-mail: fpelinozgen@hotmail.com)