Hofmann UK, Thumm S, Jordan M, et al: How do ankle braces affect braking performances? an experimental driving simulation study with healthy volunteers. J Rehabil Med 47: 963, 2015.
Tremblay MA, Corriveau H, Boissy P, et al: Effects of orthopaedic immobilization of the right lower limb on driving performance: an experimental study during simulated driving by healthy volunteers. J Bone Joint Surg Am 91: 2860, 2009.
Waton A, Kakwani R, Cooke NJ, et al: Immobilisation of the knee and ankle and its impact on drivers' braking times: a driving simulator study. J Bone Joint Surg Br 93: 928, 2001.
Murray JC, Tremblay MA, Corriveau H, et al. Effects of right lower limb orthopedic immobilization on braking function: an on-the-road experimental study with healthy volunteers. J Foot Ankle Surg 54: 554, 2015.
Mittag G, Wolf P, Kluba T, et al: Influence of different ankle braces on brake response time and brake force of young athletes. Minerva Orthop Traumatol 65: 185, 2014.
Orr J, Dowd T, Rush JK, et al: The effect of immobilization devices and left-foot adapter on brake-response time. J Bone Joint Surg Am 92: 2871, 2010.
Dammerer D, Giesinger JM, Biedermann R, et al: Effect of knee brace type of braking response time during automobile driving. Arthroscopy 31: 404, 2015.
Talusan PG, Miller CP, Save AV, et al: Driving reaction times in patients with foot and ankle pathology before and after image-guided injection: pain relief without improved function. Foot Ankle Spec 8: 107, 2015.
Jeng CL, Lin JS, Amoyal K, et al: Driving brake reaction time following right ankle arthrodesis. Foot Ankle Int 32: 896, 2011.
Hofmann UK, Jordan M, Rondak I, et al: Osteoarthritis of the knee or hip significantly impairs driving ability (cross-sectional survey). BMC Musculoskelet Disord 15: 20, 2014.
Holt G, Kay M, McGrory R, et al: Emergency brake response time after first metatarsal osteotomy. J Bone Joint Surg Am 90: 1660, 2008.
Egol KA, Sheikhazadeh A, Koval KJ: Braking function after complex lower extremity trauma. J Trauma 65: 1435, 2008.
Egol KA, Sheikhazadeh A, Mogatederi S, et al: Lower-extremity function for driving an automobile after operative treatment of ankle fracture. J Bone Joint Surg Am 85: 1185, 2003.
Liebensteiner MC, Kern M, Haid C, et al: Brake response time before and after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 11: 267, 2010.
Spalding TJ, Kiss JJ, Kyberd P, et al: Driver reaction times after total knee replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Br 76: 754, 1994.
Gotlin RS, Sherman AL, Sierra N, et al: Measurement of brake response time after right anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopy 16: 151, 2000.
MacDonald W, Owen JW: The effect of total hip replacement on driving reactions. J Bone Joint Surg Br 70: 202, 1988.
Liebensteiner MC, Birkfellner F, Thaler M, et al: Driving reaction time before and after primary fusion of the lumbar spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 35: 330, 2010.
Engkasan JP, Ehsan FM, Chung TY: Ability to return to driving after major lower limb amputation. J Rehabil Med 44: 19, 2012.
Boulias C, Meikle B, Pauley T, et al: Return to driving after lower-extremity amputation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 87: 1183, 2006.
Meikle B, Devlin M, Pauley T: Driving pedal reaction times after right transtibial amputations. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 87: 390, 2006.
Marecek GS, Schafer MF: Driving after orthopedic surgery. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 21: 696, 2013.
Goodwin D, Baecher N, Pitta M, et al: Driving after orthopedic surgery. Orthopedics 36: 469, 2013.
Haverkamp D, Rossen NN, Maas AJ, et al: Resuming driving after a fracture of the lower extremity: a survey among Dutch (orthopaedic) surgeons. Injury 36: 1365, 2005.
Giddins GE, Hammerton A: “Doctor, when can I drive?”: a medical and legal view of the implications of advice on driving after injury or operation. Injury 27: 495, 1996.
Nunez VA, Giddins GE: “Doctor, when can I drive?”: an update on the medico-legal aspects of driving following an injury or operation. Injury 35: 888, 2004.
Chen V, Chacko AT, Costello FV, Desrosiers N, Appleton P, Rodriguez EK: Driving after musculoskeletal injury: addressing patient and surgeon concerns in an urban orthopaedic practice. J Bone Joint Surg Am 90: 2791, 2008.
Kalamaras MA, Rando A, Pitchford DG: Driving plastered: who does it, is it safe and what to tell patients. ANZ J Surg 76: 439, 2006.
Von Arx OA, Langdown AJ, Brooks RA, et al: Driving whilst plastered: is it safe, is it legal? a survey of advice to patients given by orthopaedic surgeons, insurance companies and the police. Injury 35: 883, 2004.
MacLeod K, Lingham A, Chatha H, et al: “When can I return to driving”: a review of the current literature on return to driving after lower limb injury or arthroplasty. Bone Joint J 95: 290, 2013.
American Diabetes Association, Lorber D, Anderson J, Arent S, et al: Diabetes and driving. Diabetes Care 35 Suppl 1: S81, 2012.
Inkster B, Frier BM. Diabetes and driving. Diabetes Obes Metab 15: 775, 2013.
Cox DJ, Singh H, Lorber D: Diabetes and driving safety: science, ethics, legality and practice. Am J Med Sci 345: 263, 2013.
Kilpatrick ES, Rigby AS, Warren RE, et al: Implications of new European Union driving regulations on patients with Type 1 diabetes who participated in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Diabet Med 30: 616, 2013.
Green M: How long does it take to stop? methodological analysis of driver perception-brake times. Transport Hum Factors 2: 195, 2000.
Sohn SY, Stepleman R: Meta-analysis on total braking time. Ergonomics 41: 1129, 1998.
Sansosti LE, Rocha ZM, Lawrence MW, et al: The effect of variable lower extremity immobilization devices on emergency brake response driving outcomes. J Foot Ankle Surg 55: 999, 2016.
Schmidt TA, Young DE: Cars gone wild: the major contributor to unintended acceleration in automobiles in pedal error. Front Psychol 1: 209, 2010.
Sansosti LE, Greene T, Hasenstein T, et al: U.S. state driving regulations relevant to foot and ankle surgeons. J Foot Ankle Surg 56: 522, 2017.
Tesfaye S, Boulton AJ, Kickenson AH: Mechanisms and management of diabetic painful distal symmetrical polyneuropathy. Diabetes Care 36: 2456, 2013.
Andersen H: Motor dysfunction in diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 28(suppl 1): 89, 2012.
Andreassen CS, Jakobsen J, Ringgaard S, et al: Accelerated atrophy of lower leg and foot muscles: a follow-up study of long-term diabetic polyneuropathy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diabetologia 52: 1182, 2009.
Andersen H, Nielsen S, Mogensen CE, et al: Muscle strength in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 53: 1543, 2004.
Bonnet C, Carello C, Turvey MT: Diabetes and postural stability: review and hypothesis. J Mot Behav 41: 172, 2009.
Gutierrez EM, Helber MD, Dealva D, et al: Mild diabetic neuropathy affects ankle motor function. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 16: 522, 2001.
Muhil M, Sembian U, Babitha, et al: Study of auditory, visual reaction time and glycemic control (HBA1C) in chronic type II diabetes mellitus. J Clin Diagn Res 8: BC11, 2014.
Mohan M, Thombre DP, Das AK, et al: Reaction time in clinical diabetes mellitus. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 28: 311, 1984.
Sanchez-Marin FJ, Padilla-Medina JA: Simple reaction times and performance in the detection of visual stimuli of patients with diabetes. Comput Biol Med 40: 591, 2010.
Meyr AJ, Spiess KE: Diabetic driving studies-part 1: brake response time in diabetic drivers with lower extremity neuropathy. J Foot Ankle Surg 56: 568, 2017.
Spiess KE, Sansosti LE, Meyr AJ: Diabetic driving studies-part 2: a comparison of brake response time between drivers with diabetes with and without lower extremity sensorimotor neuropathy. J Foot Ankle Surg 56: 573, 2017.
Sansosti LE, Spiess KE, Meyr AJ: Diabetic driving studies-part 3: a comparison of mean brake response time between neuropathic diabetic drivers with and without foot pathology. J Foot Ankle Surg 56: 577, 2017.
Maine Department of Secretary of State; Bureau of Motor Vehicles. Physical, emotional, and mental competence to operate a motor vehicle. Available at: https://www.maine.gov/sos/bmv/laws/Chapter%209%20Rules%20Governing%20Driver%20Education%202015%5B1%5D.pdf. Accessed May 12, 2016.
Nebraska Department of Motor Vehicles: Nebraska Point System. Available at: http://www.dmv.nebraska.gov/frd/pts.html. Accessed May 12, 2016.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Driver fitness medical guidelines. Available at: http://www.nhtsa.gov/sites/nhtsa.dot.gov/files/811210.pdf. Published September 2009. Accessed May 12, 2016.
Human factors analysis of automotive adaptive equipment for disabled drivers. Available at: https://play.google.com/books/reader?id=e_s5AQAAMAAJ&hl=en&pg=GBS.PP1. Accessed May 12, 2016.
Richter RL, Hyman WA: Research note: driver's brake reaction times with adaptive controls. Hum Factors 16: 87, 1974.
The effect of lower-extremity pathology and surgical intervention on automobile driving function has been a topic of contemporary interest in the medical literature. The objective of this review was to summarize the topic of driving function in the setting of lower-extremity impairment. Included studies involved lower-extremity immobilization devices, elective and traumatic lower-limb surgery, chronic musculoskeletal pathology, and diabetes as it relates to the foot and ankle, focusing on the effect each may have on driving function. We also discuss the basic US state regulations with respect to impaired driving and changes to automobile structure that can be made in the setting of lower-extremity pathology.