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Prevalence of Clinodactyly in the Fourth and Fifth Toes of Newborns in Northern Spain: A Cross-Sectional Study

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Background

The foot of a newborn is a structure that is under formation and is susceptible to presenting pathologic disorders from the moment of birth. Evidence of the prevalence of clinodactyly in newborns is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine that prevalence and its interrelationship with gestational and neonatal factors.

Methods

In a sample of 305 newborns (147 boys and 158 girls), the commonest podiatric medical alterations with either a genetic or a postural component present at the moment of birth were explored physically. The prevalence found in the sample was then related to different anthropometric, gestational, and racial/ethnic parameters of the newborn.

Results

The sex of the newborn was unrelated to any podiatric medical pathology found. Clinodactyly was present in approximately 90% of the fifth toes studied. Breech or transverse fetal presentation and the width of the forefoot affected the appearance of clinodactyly of the fourth and fifth toes. The anthropometric differences between the feet of boys and girls were verified.

Conclusions

The presence of clinodactyly of the fourth and fifth toes in newborns is a frequent clinical finding and should, therefore, be considered in the podopediatric examination. In the neonatal population studied, the pathologic disorders explored did not depend on sex. The prevalence of fourth and fifth toe clinodactyly was significantly influenced by breech or transverse presentation and by forefoot width, but not by the mother's race/ethnicity.

Departamento de Enfermeria, University of Extremadura, Plasencia, Spain.

University of Parnasse, Bruxelles, Belgium. Dr. Carrafang is now with Department of Podiatry, Haute Ecole Leonard De Vinci, Brussels, Belgium.

Rio Hortega Hospital, Valladolid, Spain.

Department of Nursing and Podiatry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain.

Corresponding author: Alfonso Martínez-Nova, PhD, Departamento de Enfermería, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Virgen del Puerto 2, Centro Universitario de Plasencia, Plasencia, Cáceres 10600, Spain. (E-mail: podoalf@unex.es)