Esculier J-F , Dubois B & Dionne CE et al.: A consensus definition and rating scale for minimalist shoes. J Foot Ankle Res 8 : 42, 2015.
Nigg B , Baltich J & Hoerzer S et al.: Running shoes and running injuries: mythbusting and a proposal for two new paradigms: “preferred movement path” and “comfort filter.” Br J Sports Med 49 : 1290, 2015.
Tam N , Astephen Wilson JL & Noakes TD et al.: Barefoot running: an evaluation of current hypothesis, future research and clinical applications. Br J Sports Med 48 : 349, 2014.
Jenkins DW & Cauthon DJ: Barefoot running claims and controversies: a review of the literature. JAPMA 101 : 231, 2011.
Squadrone R & Gallozzi C: Biomechanical and physiological comparison of barefoot and two shod conditions in experienced barefoot runners. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 49 : 6, 2009.
Bonacci J , Saunders PU & Hicks A et al.: Running in a minimalist and lightweight shoe is not the same as running barefoot: a biomechanical study. Br J Sports Med 47 : 387, 2013.
Squadrone R , Rodano R & Hamill J et al.: Acute effect of different minimalist shoes on foot strike pattern and kinematics in rearfoot strikers during running. J Sports Sci 33 : 1, 2014.
McCallion C , Donne B & Fleming N et al.: Acute differences in foot strike and spatiotemporal variables for shod, barefoot or minimalist male runners. J Sport Sci Med 13 : 280, 2014.
Greenhalgh A , Hampson J & Thain J: A comparison of center of pressure variables recorded during running in barefoot, minimalist footwear, and traditional running shoes in the female population. Foot Ankle Online J 7 : 6, 2014.
Harriss D & Atkinson G: Ethical standards in sport and exercise science research: 2016 update. Int J Sports Med 36 : 1121, 2015.
Cavanagh PR & Lafortune MA: Ground reaction forces in distance running. J Biomech 13 : 397, 1980.
De Cock A , Vanrenterghem J & Willems T et al.: The trajectory of the centre of pressure during barefoot running as a potential measure for foot function. Gait Posture 27 : 669, 2008.
Deschamps K , Roosen P & Bruyninckx H et al.: Pattern description and reliability parameters of six force-time related indices measured with plantar pressure measurements. Gait Posture 38 : 824, 2013.
De Cock A , De Clercq D & Willems T et al.: Temporal characteristics of foot roll-over during barefoot jogging: reference data for young adults. 21 : 432, 2005.
Becker J , Pisciotta E & James S et al.: Center of pressure trajectory differences between shod and barefoot running. Gait Posture 40 : 504, 2014.
Bergstra SA , Kluitenberg B & Dekker R et al.: Running with a minimalist shoe increases plantar pressure in the forefoot region of healthy female runners. J Sci Med Sport 18 : 463, 2015.
Ito M , Tsubai J & Ujihashi S et al.: The moment lever arm is a predictor of the pronation in running. Footwear Sci 1 : 91, 2009.
Hagen M & Hennig EM: Effects of different shoe-lacing patterns on the biomechanics of running shoes. J Sports Sci 27 : 267, 2009.
Kerrigan D , Franz J & Dicharry J et al.: The effect of running shoes on lower extremity joint torques. PM R 1 : 1058, 2009.
Bosjen-Moller F: Calcaneocuboid joint stability of the longitudinal arch of the rearfoot at high and low gear push off. J Anat 129 : 165, 1979.
We aimed to determine the center of pressure (COP) trajectories and regional pressure differences in natural rearfoot strikers while running barefoot, running with a minimalist shoe, and running with a traditional shoe.
Twenty-two male natural rearfoot strikers ran at an imposed speed along an instrumented runway in three conditions: barefoot, with a traditional shoe, and with a minimalist shoe. Metrics associated to the COP and regional plantar force distribution, captured with a pressure platform, were compared using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance.
The forefoot contact phase was found to be significantly shorter in the barefoot running trials compared with the shod conditions (P = .003). The initial contact of the COP was located more anteriorly in the barefoot running trials. The mediolateral position of the COP at initial contact was found to be significantly different in the three conditions, whereas the final mediolateral position of the COP during the forefoot contact phase was found to be more lateral in the barefoot condition compared with both shod conditions (P = .0001). The metrics associated with the regional plantar force distribution supported the clinical reasoning with respect to the COP findings.
The minimalist shoe seems to provide a compromise between barefoot running and running with a traditional shoe.
Department of Podiatry, Parnasse-ISEI, Bruxelles, Belgium
University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium.
Research Group in Engineer's Sciences, Reims, France.
Faculty of Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium.