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We evaluated whether direct or indirect endovascular revascularization based on the angiosome model affects outcomes in type 2 diabetes and critical limb ischemia.
From 2010 to 2015, 603 patients with type 2 diabetes were admitted for critical limb ischemia and submitted to endovascular revascularization. Among these patients, 314 (52%) underwent direct and 123 (20%) indirect revascularization, depending on whether the flow to the artery directly feeding the site of ulceration, according to the angiosome model, was successfully acquired; 166 patients (28%) were judged unable to be revascularized. Outcomes were healing, major amputation, and mortality rates.
An overall healing rate of 62.5% was observed: patients who did not receive percutaneous transluminal angioplasty presented a healing rate of 58.4% (P < .02 versus revascularized patients). A higher healing rate was observed in the direct versus the indirect group (82.4% versus 50.4%; P < .001). The major amputation rate was significantly higher in the indirect versus the direct group (9.2% versus 3.2%; P < .05). The overall mortality rate was 21.6%, and it was higher in the indirect versus the direct group (24% versus 14%; P < .05).
These data show that direct revascularization of arteries supplying the diabetic foot ulcer site by means of the angiosome model is associated with a higher healing rate and lower risk of amputation and death compared with the indirect procedure. These results support use of the angiosome model in type 2 diabetes with critical limb ischemia.
Diabetic Foot Section, Medicine Department, Pisa University Hospital, Pisa, Italy.
Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pisa University Hospital, Pisa, Italy.