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Ankle Proprioception in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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Background

Ankle position sense may be reduced before the appearance of the clinical manifestation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. This is known to impair gait and cause falls and foot ulcers. Early detection of impaired ankle proprioception is important because it allows physicians to prescribe an exercise program to patients to prevent foot complications.

Methods

Forty-six patients diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes mellitus and 22 control patients were included in the study. Presence of neuropathy was assessed using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). Level of foot care awareness was determined using the Nottingham Assessment of Functional Footcare (NAFF). Joint position sense was measured using a dynamometer.

Results

Mean absolute angular error (MAAE) values were significantly higher in the neuropathy group compared with the control group (P < .05). Right plantarflexion MAAE values were significantly lower in the group without neuropathy compared with the group with neuropathy (P < .05). No correlation was found between MAAE values (indicating joint position sense) and age, educational level, disease duration, glycemic control, NAFF score, and MNSI history and examination scores in the groups with and without neuropathy (P > .05). Educational level and disease duration were found to be correlated with NAFF scores.

Conclusions

Increased MNSI history scores and increased deficits in ankle proprioception demonstrate that diabetic foot complications associated with reduced joint position sense may be seen at an increased rate in symptomatic patients.

Ermenek Goverment Hospital, Karaman, Turkey.

University of Health Sciences, Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

University of Health Sciences, Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Corresponding author: Deniz Dulgeroglu, University of Health Sciences, Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Training and Research Hospital, Ziraat Mahallesi, Şehit Ömer Halisdemir Cad., 06110 Dışkapı/Altındağ/Ankara/Turkey. (E-mail: denizdulgeroglu@gmail.com)