• 1. 

    Elveru RA, Rothstein JM & Lamb RL: Goniometric reliability in a clinical setting: subtalar and ankle joint measurements. Phys Ther 68: 672, 1988.

  • 2. 

    Menz HB: Alternative techniques for the clinical assessment of foot pronation. JAPMA 88: 119, 1998.

  • 3. 

    Root ML, Orien WP & Weed JH et al.: Biomechanical Examination of the Foot , Clinical Biomechanics Corp, Los Angeles, 1971.

  • 4. 

    Root ML, Orien WP & Weed JH: Normal and Abnormal Function of the Foot, Los Angeles, Clinical Biomechanics Corp, 1977.

  • 5. 

    McPoil TG & Hunt GC: Evaluation and management of foot and ankle disorders: present problems and future directions. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 21: 381, 1995.

  • 6. 

    Evans AM, Copper AW & Scharfbillig RW et al.: Reliability of the foot posture index and traditional measures of foot position. JAPMA 93: 203, 2003.

  • 7. 

    Landis JR & Koch GG: The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics 33: 159, 1977.

  • 8. 

    Redmond AC, Crosbie J & Ouvrier RA: Development and validation of a novel rating system for scoring standing foot posture: the Foot Posture Index. Clin Biomech 21: 89, 2006.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. 

    Menz HB & Munteanu SE: Validity of 3 clinical techniques for the measurement of static foot posture in older people. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 35: 479, 2005.

  • 10. 

    Brody D: Techniques in the evaluation and treatment of the injured runner. Orthop Clin North Am 13: 541, 1982.

  • 11. 

    Sell KE, Verity TM & Worrell TW et al.: Two measurement techniques for assessing subtalar joint position: a reliability study. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 19: 162, 1994.

  • 12. 

    McPoil TG, Cornwall MW & Medoff L et al.: Arch height change during sit-to-stand: an alternative for the navicular drop test. J Foot Ankle Res 1: 3, 2008.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. 

    McPoil TG, Vicenzino B & Cornwall MW et al.: Reliability and normative values for the foot mobility magnitude: a composite measure of vertical and medial-lateral mobility of the midfoot. J Foot Ankle Res 2: 6, 2009.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. 

    Menz HB: Two feet, or one person? problems associated with statistical analysis of paired data in foot and ankle medicine. The Foot 14: 2, 2004.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. 

    Teyhen DS, Stoltenberg BE & Collinsworth KM et al.: Dynamic plantar pressure parameters associated with static arch height index during gait. Clin Biomech 24: 391, 2009.

    • Crossref
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. 

    Picciano AM, Rowlands MS & Worrell T: Reliability of open and closed kinetic chain subtalar joint neutral positions and navicular drop test. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 18: 553, 1993.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Does the Nonweightbearing Foot Position Replicate the Neutral Calcaneal Stance Position in an Adult Population?

Hayley Walker BPod(Hons), Rolf Scharfbillig PhD, and Sara Jones PhD
View More View Less
Restricted access

Background

The neutral calcaneal stance position (NCSP), despite its known issues, is currently used as an “ideal” measure compared with the resting stance position in clinical podiatric medicine. The nonweightbearing (NWB) foot position, as used in the foot mobility magnitude (FMM), can provide an alternative comparative position, which is partially validated, if a significant correlation between the NCSP and the NWB position exists. This study aimed to establish the correlation between the component measures of the FMM in the NCSP and the NWB foot position of the FMM.

Methods

Eighty participants were recruited. Measures of dorsal arch height (DAH) and midfoot width (MFW) were obtained at the 50% total foot length mark in the NCSP and the NWB position by two examiners using the apparatus described by McPoil et al.

Results

Reliability analysis with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) indicated intrarater results of 0.90 to 0.99 for DAH and 0.96 to 0.99 for MFW and interrater results of 0.90 for DAH and 0.96 for MFW in the NWB position. Using a Pearson product moment correlation coefficient analysis, there was a significant correlation between the NCSP and the NWB position for DAH (r = 0.82) and MFW (r = 0.86).

Conclusions

A significant correlation between the NCSP and the NWB position was evident when the measures of DAH and MFW were conducted. Therefore, clinically, the NWB position can potentially replace the NCSP as the ideal position for clinical treatment.

Allied Health and Human Performance, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.

Corresponding author: Rolf Scharfbillig, PhD, Allied Health and Human Performance, University of South Australia, Adelaide, 5000 Australia. (E-mail: Rolf.Scharfbillig@unisa.edu.au)

Conflict of Interest: None reported.