Izquierdo-Renau M , Pérez-Soriano P & Ribas-García V et al.: Intra and intersession repeatability and reliability of the S-Plate pressure platform. Gait Posture 52: 224, 2017.
Abdul Razak AH , Zayegh A & Begg RK et al.: Foot plantar pressure measurement system: a review. Sensors 12: 9884, 2012.
Hafer JF , Lenhoff MW & Song J et al.: Reliability of plantar pressure platforms. Gait Posture 38: 544, 2013.
Gutteck N , Schilde S & Delank KS: Pain on the plantar surface of the foot. Dtsch Arztebl Int 116: 83, 2019.
Sabry AH , Sabry A & Hasan WZW et al.: Foot plantar pressure distribution modeling based on image processing. Paper presented at: 2018 IEEE 5th International Conference on Smart Instrumentation, Measurement and Application (ICSIMA); Songkla, Thailand; November 28-30, 2018.
Caravaggi P , Avallone G & Giangrande A et al.: A pedobarography-based tool for functional analysis of the foot. Orthop Proc 99 (suppl 2) : 1, 2018.
Fourchet F , Maffiuletti NA & Agosti F et al.: Impact of rocker sole footwear on plantar pressure distribution during standing and walking in adult obese women. Disabil Rehabil 42: 927, 2020.
Taborri J , Palermo E & Rossi S et al.: Gait partitioning methods: a systematic review. Sensors 16: 66, 2016.
Urry S: Plantar pressure-measurement sensors. Meas Sci Technol 10: R16, 1999.
Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo R , Losa Iglesias ME & Zeni J et al.: Reliability and repeatability of the portable EPS-platform digital pressure-plate system. JAPMA 103: 197, 2013.
Goetschius J , Feger MA & Hertel J et al.: Validating center-of-pressure balance measurements using the MatScan pressure mat. J Sport Rehabil 27: 12, 2018.
Xu C , Wen XX & Huang LY et al.: Normal foot loading parameters and repeatability of the Footscan platform system. J Foot Ankle Res 10: 30, 2017.
Pignanelli J , Schlingman K & Carmichael TB et al.: A comparative analysis of capacitive-based flexible PDMS pressure sensors. Sensors Actuators A Phys 285: 427, 2019.
Mezzarobba S , Bortolato S & Giacomazzi A et al.: Percutaneous repair of Achilles tendon ruptures with Tenolig: quantitative analysis of postural control and gait pattern. Foot 22: 303, 2012.
Mustapa A , Justine M & Mohd Mustafah N et al.: Postural control and gait performance in the diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a systematic review. Biomed Res Int 2016: 1, 2016.
Redmond AC , Crosbie J & Ouvrier RA: Development and validation of a novel rating system for scoring standing foot posture: the Foot Posture Index. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 21: 89, 2006.
Schutte LM , Narayanan U & Stout JL et al.: An index for quantifying deviations from normal gait. Gait Posture 11: 25, 2000.
Giacomozzi C: Appropriateness of plantar pressure measurement devices: a comparative technical assessment. Gait Posture 32: 141, 2010.
Gomez Bernal A , Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo R & Losa-Iglesias ME: Reliability of the OptoGait portable photoelectric cell system for the quantification of spatial-temporal parameters of gait in young adults. Gait Posture 50: 196, 2016.
Zhu H , Wertsch JJ & Harris GF et al.: Walking cadence effect on plantar pressures. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 76: 1000, 1995.
Peters EJG , Urukalo A & Fleischli JG et al.: Reproducibility of gait analysis- variables: one-step versus three-step method of data acquisition. J Foot Ankle Surg 41: 206, 2002.
Zammit GV , Menz HB & Munteanu SE: Reliability of the TekScan MatScan system for the measurement of plantar forces and pressures during barefoot level walking in healthy adults. J Foot Ankle Res 3: 11, 2010.
Landis, J.R. & Koch: G.G. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data, Biometrics, 33 159– 174, 1977.
Plantar pressure plate instruments are commonly used in clinical practice and biomechanical analysis and are useful to establish a relationship between gait disorders and foot pressure. The aim of this study was to verify the reliability and repeatability of the Footwork pressure plate system for static and dynamic conditions.
Forty healthy adults, without apparent gait pathology, were recruited. For the static condition, participants were asked to stand static on the Footwork pressure plate for 5 sec in natural position (arms on either side of the body, feet shoulder-width apart in a comfortable angle, and looking ahead). For the dynamic condition, subjects were told to step five times with each foot on the plate following the three-step protocol. Both conditions were performed in two testing sessions spaced by 1 week.
Intrasession and intersession reliability for both conditions showed substantial to almost perfect intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values, and low coefficient of variation, low standard error measure, and low percentage error. Intrasession ICCs were 0.724 to 0.993 for static condition evaluation and 0.639 to 0.986 for dynamic condition evaluation. Intersession reliability ICCs ranged from 0.850 to 0.987 for the static condition and from 0.781 to 0.996 for the dynamic condition. Coefficient of variation values were below 8% in both cases and percentage error calculated from standard error measure were less than 10%.
The present work demonstrates that the Footwork plantar pressure plate system is a reliable instrument for collecting plantar pressures in static and dynamic conditions. Reliability data were higher for the static trials, probably because of the individual physiologic fluctuations, which are larger during dynamic gait. Reliability for intersession and average intrasession trials were higher than single-test reliability. The results from the present work can be used as a starting point for future research and to establish a basis for sample sizes for investigations that would use the Footwork platform.
Department of Podiatry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manresa, Manresa, Spain.
Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health and Sports Sciences, University of San Jorge, Villanueva de Gállego, Spain.
R & D Department, Biomechanical Unit, Podoactiva Headquarters, Walqa Technological Park, Huesca, Spain.
Medical Tech Center, Sanitas–Real Madrid, Biomechanical Analysis Laboratory, Madrid, Spain.