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Eumycetoma, A Neglected Tropical Disease in the United States

A Case Report

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Eumycetoma, caused by fungi, is a neglected tropical disease. It is endemic in the “mycetoma belt” countries but rare in North America. We report a case of pedal eumycetoma in the state of Maryland. A 51-year-old male immigrant from Guatemala presented with multiple, enlarging nodules on the dorsal surface of his left great toe present for 1 year, and a new one in the left arch area present for 6 months. The nodular lesions were surgically excised in two separate operations. Pathologic evaluation of all nodules revealed eumycetomas characterized by the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon, showing an amorphous eosinophilic center filled with numerous fungal hyphae, observed on periodic acid-Schiff–stained slides, with a surrounding cuff of neutrophils. Polymerase chain reaction–based sequencing identified Cladosporium cladosporioides in the tissues. The patient was further treated with oral fluconazole for 2 months. The patient recovered well postoperatively and had no recurrence at 20-month follow-up. In conclusion, even though eumycetoma is regarded as a rare disease in North America, its incidence may be higher than reported because of millions of immigrants from endemic regions in the United States, which highlights the need to raise awareness of this devastating disease in the medical community. Eumycetoma needs to be differentiated from other infectious and noninfectious benign and malignant lesions. Optimal treatment includes surgical excision with antifungal therapy.

Foot and Ankle Specialists of the Mid-Atlantic, Rockville, MD.

Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

Foot and Ankle Specialists of the Mid-Atlantic, Kensington, MD.

Corresponding author: Xingpei Hao, MD, PhD, Foot and Ankle Specialists of the Mid-Atlantic, 1600 East Gude Dr, Ste 205, Rockville, MD 20850. (E-mail: xhao@footandankle-usa.com)