• 1

    Craddock LN, Schieke SM: “Superficial Fungal Infection,” in Fitzpatrick's Dermatology, Vol 2, edited by Kang S, Amagai M, Bruckner AL, et al., p 2925, McGraw-Hill Education, New York, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Kaushik N, Pujalte GG, Reese ST: Superficial fungal infections. Prim Care 42: 501, 2015.

  • 3

    Chen M, Xu Y, Hong N, et al.: Epidemiology of fungal infections in China. Front Med 12: 58, 2018.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    de Chauvin MF: A study on the decontamination of insoles colonized by Trichophyton rubrum: effect of terbinafine spray powder 1% and terbinafine spray solution 1%. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 26: 857, 2012.

    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Assadamongkol R, Lertwattanarak R, Wannachalee T, et al.: Prevalence, risk factors, and type of organism in fungal foot infection and toenail onychomycosis in Thai diabetic patients. J Med Assoc Thai 99: 659, 2016.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Krol A, Pomastowski P, Rafinska K, et al.: Zinc oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, antiseptic activity and toxicity mechanism. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 249: 37, 2017.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Tiwari N, Pandit R, Gaikwad S, et al.: Biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles by petals extract of Rosa indica L., its formulation as nail paint and evaluation of antifungal activity against fungi causing onychomycosis. IET Nanobiotechnol 11: 205, 2017.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Leite-Silva VR, Sanchez WY, Studier H, et al.: Human skin penetration and local effects of topical nano zinc oxide after occlusion and barrier impairment. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 104: 140, 2016.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Suwannachat S, Chaiyalak C, Jampanoi T, et al.: Invention proposal document - Antibacterial socks and microcapsules fragrance. Directorate of Quartermaster Technical Affairs Division, Royal Thai Air Force, Bangkok, Thailand, 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Al-Janabi AAHS, Bashi AM: Development of a new synthetic xerogel nanoparticles of silver and zinc oxide against causative agents of dermatophytoses. J Dermatolog Treat 30: 283, 2019.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Sharma D, Rajput J, Kaith BS, et al.: Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and study of their antibacterial and antifungal properties. Thin Solid Films 519: 1224, 2010.

    • Crossref
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Gunalan S, Sivaraj R, Rajendran V: Green synthesized ZnO nanoparticles against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Prog Nat Sci 22: 693, 2012.

    • Crossref
    • Web of Science
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Plain Socks and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle–Coated Socks

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Restricted access

Background: Fungal foot infection is a common superficial fungal infection and is recognized as an important public health problem. Related to the wearing of occlusive footwear, foot infection is usually caused by dermatophytes and nondermatophyte molds. Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have antimicrobial activity against fungi. This study, therefore, evaluated the ability of socks coated with ZnO-NPs to inhibit fungal growth in an in vitro model mimicking real-life situations.

Methods: Scale from patients with fungal foot infections was equally divided into three groups: control, plain socks, and ZnO-NP socks. The specimens in the control group were routinely fungal cultured, whereas in the plain sock and ZnO-NP sock groups, scale was incubated with plain socks and ZnO-NP socks, respectively, for 24 hours. After incubation, each piece of sock was cultured. The fungal culture results of the three groups were progressively evaluated for 4 weeks.

Results: From 31 specimens, the positive fungal culture results of the control, plain sock, and ZnO-NP sock groups were 100%, 64.5%, and 54.8%, respectively. Specimens incubated with plain socks (P = .001) or with ZnO-NP socks (P < .001) had a significant reduction in the number of positive fungal cultures compared with the control.

Conclusions: Plain socks and ZnO-NP socks significantly inhibited fungal growth relative to the control. The wearing of either plain socks or ZnO-NP socks can prevent fungal foot infection because these socks act as a barrier to the insoles of shoes.

Corresponding author: Lalita Matthapan, BSc, Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, 2 Wanglang Rd, Bangkoknoi, Bangkok 10700, Thailand. (E-mail: matthapan_joy@yahoo.com)