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Onychomycosis is the most common nail disorder, with a global prevalence of approximately 5.5%. It is difficult to cure on both short-term and long-term bases. The most common treatments include the use of oral or topical antifungals. Recurrent infections are common, and the use of systemic oral antifungals raises concerns of hepatotoxicity and drug-drug interactions, particularly in patients with polypharmacy. A number of device-based treatments have been developed for onychomycosis treatment, to either directly treat fungal infection or act as adjuvants to increase the efficacy of topical and oral agents. These device-based treatments have been increasing in popularity over the past several years, and include photodynamic therapy, iontophoresis, plasma, microwaves, ultrasound, nail drilling, and lasers. Some, such as photodynamic therapy, provide more direct treatment, whereas others, such as ultrasound and nail drilling, aid the uptake of traditional antifungals. We conducted a systematic literature search investigating the efficacy of these device-based treatment methods. From an initial result of 841 studies, 26 were deemed relevant to the use of device-based treatments of onychomycosis. This review examines these methods and provides insight into the state of clinical research for each. Many device-based treatments show promising results, but require more research to assess their true impact on onychomycosis.