Sanchez-Morata E, Martinez-Avila JC, Vacas Sanchez E, et al.: Predicting syndesmotic injuries in ankle fractures: a new system based on the medial malleolar focus. Injury 48(suppl 6): S86, 2017.
Acosta-Olivo C, Tamez-Mata Y, Elizondo-Rodriguez J, et al.: Investigation of the association between the acute ankle injury caused by fall from own height and body mass index. J Foot Ankle Surg 58: 288, 2019.
Tyler TF, McHugh MP, Mirabella MR, et al.: Risk factors for noncontact ankle sprains in high school football players: the role of previous ankle sprains and body mass index. Am J Sports Med 34: 471, 2006.
Dodd AC, Lakomkin N, Attum B, et al.: Predictors of adverse events for ankle fractures: an analysis of 6800 patients. J Foot Ankle Surg 55: 762, 2016.
Warner SJ, Gausden EB, Levack AE, et al.: Supination external rotational ankle fracture injury pattern correlation with regional bone density. Foot Ankle Int 40: 384, 2019.
Lee SY, Kwon SS, Park MS, et al.: Is there a relationship between bone morphology and injured ligament on imaging studies and laxity on ankle stress radiographs? Int J Sports Med 37: 1080, 2016.
Lee KM, Chung CY, Sung KH, et al.: Anatomical predisposition of the ankle joint for lateral sprain or lateral malleolar fracture evaluated by radiographic measurements. Foot Ankle Int 36: 64, 2015.
Panchbhavi VK, Gubani BN, Mason CB, et al.: Radiographic assessment of fibular length variance: the case for “fibula minus.” J Foot Ankle Surg 57: 91, 2018.
Magerkurth O, Frigg A, Hintermann B, et al.: Frontal and lateral characteristics of the osseous configuration in chronic ankle instability. Br J Sports Med 44: 568, 2010.
McDermott JE, Scranton PE, Rogers JV: Variations in fibular position, talar length, and anterior talofibular ligament length. Foot Ankle Int 25: 625, 2004.
Scranton PE, McDermott JE, Rogers JV: The relationship between chronic ankle instability and variations in mortise anatomy and impingement spurs. Foot Ankle Int 21: 657, 2000.
Berkowitz MJ, Kim DH: Fibular position in relation to lateral ankle instability. Foot Ankle Int 25: 318, 2004.
Eren OT, Kucukkaya M, Kabukcuoglu Y, et al.: The role of a posteriorly positioned fibula in ankle sprain. Am J Sports Med 31: 995, 2003.
Elise S, Maynou C, Mestdagh H, et al.: Simple tibiotalar luxation: apropos of 16 cases. Acta Orthop Belg 64: 25, 1998.
Karnovsky SC, Rosenbaum AJ, DeSandis B, et al.: Radiographic analysis of National Football League players' fifth metatarsal morphology relationship to proximal fifth metatarsal fracture risk. Foot Ankle Int 40: 318, 2019.
Carreira DS, Sandilands SM: Radiographic factors and effect of fifth metatarsal Jones and diaphyseal stress fractures on participation in the NFL. Foot Ankle Int 34: 518, 2013.
Sugimoto K, Samoto N, Takakura Y, et al.: Varus tilt of the tibial plafond as a factor in chronic ligament instability of the ankle. Foot Ankle Int 18: 402, 1997.
Background: We investigated the relationship between ankle radiographic bone morphology and observed fracture type.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients who had visited the emergency department with ankle injuries between June 1, 2012, and July 31, 2018. Patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation. Patients were grouped by fracture pattern. Group 1 consisted of isolated lateral malleolar fractures, and group 2 comprised bimalleolar fractures. Group 1 was further divided into subgroups A and B based on classification as Weber type B and C fractures, respectively. Four radiographic parameters were measured postoperatively on a standing whole-leg anteroposterior view of the ankle: talocrural angle (TCA), medial malleolar relative length (MMRL), lateral malleolar relative length (LMRL), and distance between the talar dome and distal fibula.
Results: One hundred seventeen patients were included in group 1-A, 89 in group 1-B, and 168 in group 2. The TCA and MMRL were significantly larger in group 2 than in group 1. Lateral to medial malleolar length ratio was also significantly different between the groups. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of LMRL and the distance between the distal fibula tip and talar process. Between subgroups 1-A and 1-B, LMRL (P = .402) and MMRL (P = .592) values were not significantly different. However, there was a significant difference between groups in TCA and the distance between the distal fibula tip and talar process.
Conclusions: The TCA, MMRL, and lateral malleolar length to medial malleolar length ratio were significantly higher in patients with bimalleolar fracture than in patients with isolated lateral malleolar fractures.