Orthotic management is helpful in the treatment of most orthopedic conditions involving the rearfoot, including plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendon disorders, posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, flatfoot, ankle sprains, and problems associated with diabetes, arthritis, and equinus disorders. A review of the effectiveness of orthoses in the treatment of these conditions is presented here. An in-depth analysis of the orthotic management of plantar fasciitis and a critical review of foot orthoses for the pronated foot are presented. Also discussed are the rationale and effectiveness of the tension night splint in the treatment of plantar fasciitis, orthotic devices for the different stages of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, and the various categories of orthoses for off-loading the diabetic foot. The modern ankle brace, the effectiveness of prefabricated versus prescription foot orthoses, and recent developments in the ankle-foot orthosis are also reviewed.