Reevaluation of the relaxed calcaneal stance position. Reliability and normal values in children and adults

E SobelDivision of Orthopedic Sciences, New York College of Podiatric Medicine, NY 10035, USA.

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SJ LevitzDivision of Orthopedic Sciences, New York College of Podiatric Medicine, NY 10035, USA.

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MA CaselliDivision of Orthopedic Sciences, New York College of Podiatric Medicine, NY 10035, USA.

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M TranDivision of Orthopedic Sciences, New York College of Podiatric Medicine, NY 10035, USA.

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F LeporeDivision of Orthopedic Sciences, New York College of Podiatric Medicine, NY 10035, USA.

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E LiljaDivision of Orthopedic Sciences, New York College of Podiatric Medicine, NY 10035, USA.

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M SinaieDivision of Orthopedic Sciences, New York College of Podiatric Medicine, NY 10035, USA.

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E WainDivision of Orthopedic Sciences, New York College of Podiatric Medicine, NY 10035, USA.

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Reliability and normal values for the relaxed calcaneal stance position were determined in a nonclinic population of healthy adults and children (88 adults and 124 children) ranging in age from 5 to 36 years. The mean relaxed calcaneal stance position for adults was 6.07 degrees valgus (SD 2.71 degrees) (range, 1 degree varus to 14 degrees valgus). The mean relaxed calcaneal stance position for children was 5.6 degrees valgus (SD 2.9 degrees) (range, 6 degrees varus to 12 degrees valgus). There was no significant difference between the relaxed calcaneal stance positions of adults and children. In children the relaxed calcaneal stance position did not correlate with age, height, or weight and did not decrease with age to the theoretical normal value of 0 degree +/- 2 degrees as postulated by Root et al. The relaxed calcaneal stance position was found to be a reliable measurement; however, the theoretical normal value of 0 degree +/- 2 degrees was not found. The values reported in the present study correspond with the results of other empirical studies; thus the theoretical normal value for the relaxed calcaneal stance position of 0 degree +/- 2 degrees may be invalid.