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A Prospective Study of Predictors for Foot Ulceration in Type 2 Diabetes

T. Kästenbauer Research Fellow, Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition, Hospital Lainz, Vienna, Austria. Mailing address:Thomas Kästenbauer, Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition, Hospital Lainz, Wolkersbergenstrasse 1, 1130 Vienna, Austria.

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S. Sauseng Research Fellow, Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition, Hospital Lainz, Vienna, Austria. Mailing address:Thomas Kästenbauer, Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition, Hospital Lainz, Wolkersbergenstrasse 1, 1130 Vienna, Austria.

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G. Sokol Senior Physician, Third Medical Department of Metabolic Diseases and Nephrology, Hospital Lainz, Vienna, Austria.

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M. Auinger Senior Physician, Third Medical Department of Metabolic Diseases and Nephrology, Hospital Lainz, Vienna, Austria.

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K. Irsigler Director, Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition, Hospital Lainz, Vienna, Austria.

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One hundred eighty-seven type 2 diabetic patients without a history of foot ulceration were followed for a mean period of 3.6 years to investigate the incidence of foot ulceration in a diabetes cohort and to analyze risk factors for foot ulceration by multivariate means. During the study, 10 subjects developed 18 forefoot ulcerations. In multivariate logistic regression, significant predictors for foot ulceration were an elevated vibration perception threshold (VPT) (relative risk [RR] = 25.4), an increased plantar pressure (RR = 6.3), and daily alcohol intake (RR = 5.1). This is the first prospective study to demonstrate plantar pressure and daily alcohol intake as predictors of foot ulceration among patients without previous ulceration. Further, VPT could be confirmed as the strongest predictor for foot ulceration, and it was clearly demonstrated that the more pronounced severity of complications occurred among subjects with elevated VPT. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(7): 343-350, 2001)