• 1

    Lemm M, Green R, Green D: “Summary of Retrospective Long-term Review of Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Arthroplasty and Arthrodesis Procedures for Hammertoe Correction,” in Reconstructive Surgery of the Foot and Leg: Update ’96, ed by NS Vickers, SJ Miller, KT Mahan, et al, p 193, The Podiatry Institute, Tucker, GA, 1996..

  • 2

    Malay DS: “An Analysis of Digital Arthrodesis,” in Reconstructive Surgery of the Foot and Leg: Update ’96, ed by NS Vickers, SJ Miller, KT Mahan, et al, p 209, The Podiatry Institute, Tucker, GA, 1996..

  • 3

    Lehman DE, Smith RW: Treatment of symptomatic hammertoe with a proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis. .Foot Ankle Int 16::535. ,1995. .

  • 4

    Reed TM: Allofix freeze-dried cortical bone pins as an alternative to synthetic absorbable polymeric pins: a preliminary study in short Z-bunionectomies. .J Foot Ankle Surg 38::14. ,1999. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Patton GW, Shaffer MW, Kostakos DP: Absorbable pin: a new method of fixation for digital arthrodesis. .J Foot Surg 29::122. ,1990. .

  • 6

    Barea F, Busa R: Resorbable poly-L-lactic acid mini-staples for the fixation of Akin osteotomies. .J Foot Ankle Surg 36::106. ,1987. .

  • 7

    Bos RRM, Rozemia FR, Boering G, et al: Degradation of and tissue reaction to biodegradable poly-L-lactide for use as internal fixation of fractures: a study in rats. .Biomaterials 12::32. ,1991. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Parks RM, Nelson G: Complications with the use of bioabsorbable pins in the foot. .J Foot Ankle Surg 32::153. ,1993. .

  • 9

    Malinin TI, Latta LL, Wagner JL, et al: Healing of fractures with freeze-dried cortical bone plates: comparison with compression plating. .Clin Orthop Rel Res 190::281. ,1984. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Kingsbury GH, Chase SW, Herndon CH: A comparative study of the healing process following different types of bone transplantation. .J Bone Joint Surg Am 45::1593. ,1963. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Enneking WF, Burchardt H, Puhl JJ, et al: Physical and biological aspects of repair in dog cortical-bone transplants. .J Bone Joint Surg Am 57::237. ,1975. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Burchardt H, Enneking WF: Transplantation of bone. .Surg Clin North Am 58::403. ,1978. .

  • 13

    Mahan KT, Hillstrom HJ: Bone grafting in foot and ankle surgery: a review of 300 cases. .JAPMA 88::109. ,1998. .

  • 14

    Albrektsson T, Albrektsson B: Microcirculation in grafted bone. .Acta Orthop Scand 49::1. ,1978. .

  • 15

    Smith TF: Bone graft physiology: survival and incorporation of the graft. .JAPA 73::70. ,1983. .

  • 16

    Cypher TJ, Grossman JP: Biological principles of bone graft healing. .J Foot Ankle Surg 35::413. ,1996. .

  • 17

    Goldberg VM, Stevenson S: The biology of bone grafts. .Semin Arthroplasty 4::58. ,1993. .

  • 18

    Burchardt H: The biology of bone graft repair. .Clin Orthop Rel Res 174::28. ,1983. .

  • 19

    Stevenson JS, Bright RW, Dunson GL, et al: Technetium-99m phosphate bone imaging: a method for assessing bone graft healing. .Radiology 110::391. ,1974. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Prolo DJ, Rodrigo JJ: Contemporary bone graft physiology and surgery. .Clin Orthop Rel Res 200::322. ,1985. .

  • 21

    Hamer AJ, Suvarna SK, Stockley I: Histologic evidence of cortical allograft bone incorporation in revision hip surgery. .J Arthroplasty 12::785. ,1997. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Buckwalter JA, Glimcher MJ, Cooper RR, et al: Bone biology: part I. Structure, blood supply and mineralization. .J Bone Joint Surg Am 77::1256. ,1995. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Buckwalter JA, Glimcher MJ, Cooper RR, et al: Bone biology: part II. Formation, form, modeling, remodeling and regulation of cell function. .J Bone Joint Surg Am 77::1276. ,1995. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Boyce T, Edwards J, Scarborough N: Allograft bone: the influence of processing on safety and performance. .Orthop Clin North Am 30::571. ,1999. .

  • 25

    Tomford WW: Transmission of disease through transplantation of musculoskeletal allografts. .J Bone Joint Surg Am 77::1742. ,1995. .

  • 26

    Buck BE, Malinin TI: Human bone and tissue allografts: preparation and safety. .Clin Orthop Rel Res 303::8. ,1994. .

  • 27

    Buck BE, Malinin TI, Brown MD: Bone transplantation and human immunodeficiency virus: an estimate of risk of immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). .Clin Orthop Rel Res 240::129. ,1989. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Hammer Toe Correction by Arthrodesis of the Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Using a Cortical Bone Allograft Pin

Stephen J. Miller Private practice, Island Foot and Ankle Care, 1220 22nd St, Ste A, Anacortes, WA 98221-2560.

Search for other papers by Stephen J. Miller in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DPM

In hammer toe correction by means of digital fusion, fixation so that the bone can unite while maintaining appropriate realignment can be a challenge. Metal fixation pins can be associated with many problems and potential complications. The author presents a method of rigid internal fixation using 2.4-mm-diameter pins fashioned out of freeze-dried allogeneic cortical bone. These devices avoid most of the risks of metal pins. Proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis using cortical bone pins was performed on 26 toes in 18 patients with very few complications. The author concludes that use of cortical bone pins can yield successful results in most cases. The outcomes of the fusions can be further enhanced by using flexor digitorum longus tendon transfer. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(10): 563-569, 2002)