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Motion of the Calcaneus, Navicular, and First Metatarsal During the Stance Phase of Walking

Mark W. Cornwall PhD, PT, CPed1 and Thomas G. McPoil PhD, PT, ATC2
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  • 1 Professor and Co-director, Gait Research Laboratory, Department of Physical Therapy, PO Box 15105, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011.
  • | 2 Professor and Co-director of the Gait Research Laboratory, Department of Physical Therapy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ.
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One hundred fifty-three subjects between the ages of 18 and 41 years (mean age, 26.2 years) with no history of congenital or traumatic deformity or foot problems walked along a 6-m walkway while the angular and linear displacement of the tibia, calcaneus, navicular, and first metatarsal was measured by means of an electromagnetic motion analysis system. Three-dimensional movement of the calcaneus relative to the tibia, of the navicular relative to the calcaneus, and of the first metatarsal relative to the navicular during the stance phase of gait was calculated. The results of this study provide information on, and an understanding of, how the calcaneus, navicular, and first metatarsal function during the stance phase of normal human walking. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(2): 67-76, 2002)