Miller S, Van Holsbeeck M, Boruta P, et al: Ultrasound in the diagnosis of posterior tibial tendon pathology. .Foot Ankle Int 17::555. ,1996. .
Fornage BD, Rifkin MD: Ultrasound examination of tendons. .Radiol Clin North Am 26::87. ,1988. .
Kainberger FM, Engel A, Barton P, et al: Injury of the Achilles tendon: diagnosis with sonography. .AJR Am J Roentgenol 155::1031. ,1990. .
Fornage BD, Rifkin MD: Ultrasound examination of the hand and foot. .Radiol Clin North Am 26::619. ,1988. .
Rockett MS: The use of ultrasound in the foot and ankle. .JAPMA 89::331. ,1999. .
Wall JR, Harkness MA, Crawford A: Ultrasound diagnosis of plantar fasciitis. .Foot Ankle Int 14::465. ,1993. .
Cardinal E, Cjeri RK, Beauregard CG, et al: Plantar fasciitis sonographic evaluation. .Radiology 201::257. ,1996. .
Japour CJ, Vohra R, Vohra PK, et al: Management of heel pain syndrome with acetic acid iontophoresis. .JAPMA 89::251. ,1999. .
Sellman JR: Plantar fascia rupture associated with corticosteroid injection. .Foot Ankle Int 15::376. ,1994. .
Brophy DP, Cunnane G, Fitzgerald O, et al: Technical report: ultrasound guidance for injection of sole tissue lesions around the heel in chronic inflammatory arthritis. .Clin Radiol 50::120. ,1995. .
Anderson RB, Foster MD: Operative treatment of subcalcaneal pain. .Foot Ankle 9::317. ,1989. .
Fornage BD, Schernberg FL: Sonographic diagnosis of foreign bodies of the distal extremities. .AJR Am J Roentgenol 147::567. ,1986. .
Goodsitt MM: “The Basic Physics of Ultrasound Imaging,” in Radiology: Diagnosis-Imaging-Intervention, ed by JM Taveras, JT Ferrucci, p 51, JB Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1993..
Walter JP: Physics of high-resolution ultrasound: practical aspects. .Radiol Clin North Am 23::3. ,1985. .
Schepsis AA, Leach RE, Gorzyca J: Plantar fasciitis: etiology, treatment, surgical results, and review of the literature. .Clin Orthop 266::185. ,1991. .
Kier R: Magnetic resonance imaging of plantar fasciitis and other causes of heel pain. .Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 2::97. ,1994. .
Rockett MS, Waitches G, Sudakoff G, et al: Use of ultrasonography versus magnetic resonance imaging for tendon abnormalities around the ankle. .Foot Ankle Int 19::604. ,1998. .
Barrett SL, Day SV, Pignetti TT, et al: Endoscopic heel anatomy: analysis of 200 fresh frozen specimens. .J Foot Ankle Surg 34::51. ,1995. .
David DR: Kinematics of the lower extremity. .Clin Podiatr Med Surg 5::459. ,1988. .
Deland JT, Lee KT, Sobel M, et al: Anatomy of the plantar plate and its attachments in the lesser metatarsal phalangeal joint. .Foot Ankle Int 16::480. ,1995. .
The authors measured the thickness of the medial, central, and lateral bands of the plantar fascia using ultrasonographic techniques in 109 symptomatic patients with 211 painful heels. Plantar fasciitis was diagnosed by the presence of plantar heel pain and tenderness of the plantar fascia on palpation and was correlated with plantar fascia thickness. All of the symptomatic feet had medial band tenderness, with an average thickness of 5.9 mm, 68% had central band tenderness, with an average thickness of 5.3 mm, and 26% had lateral band tenderness, with an average thickness of 4.4 mm. The average thickness of all symptomatic bands was 5.35 mm, which was significantly greater than that for all asymptomatic bands, which was 2.70 mm. There were also significant differences in the thickness of the three plantar fascia bands in symptomatic patients. A plantar fascia index was established consisting of the ratio of the mean thickness of symptomatic medial, central, and lateral plantar fascia bands to that of asymptomatic bands; for this study, the index value is 1.98 (5.35/2.70 mm). (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 92(8): 444-449, 2002)