Subotnick S: Achilles and peroneal tendon injuries in the athlete. .Clin Podiatr Med Surg 14::447. ,1997. .
Stanish W: Overuse injuries in athletes: a perspective. .Med Sci Sports Exerc 16::1. ,1984. .
Kvist M, Jozsa L, Jarvinen MJ, et al: Chronic Achilles paratenonitis in athletes: a histological and histochemical study. .Pathology 19::1. ,1987. .
Angermann P, Hovgaard D: Chronic Achilles tendinopathy in athletic individuals: results of nonsurgical treatment. .Foot Ankle Int 20::304. ,1999. .
Johnston E, Scranton P, Pfeffer GB: Chronic disorders of the Achilles tendon: results of conservative and surgical treatments. .Foot Ankle Int 18::570. ,1997. .
Schepsis A, Wagner C, Leach RE: Surgical management of Achilles tendon overuse injuries. .Am J Sports Med 22::611. ,1994. .
Schepsis A, Leach R: Surgical management of Achilles tendinitis. .Am J Sports Med 15::308. ,1987. .
Nelen G, Martens M, Burssens A: Surgical treatment of chronic Achilles tendinitis. .Am J Sports Med 17::754. ,1989. .
Myerson MS, McGarvey W: Disorders of the Achilles tendon insertion and Achilles tendinitis. .Instr Course Lect 48::211. ,1999. .
Jones DC: Achilles tendon problems in runners. .Instr Course Lect 47::419. ,1998. .
Lean M, Han T, Seidell J: Impairment of health and quality of life using new US federal guidelines for the identification of obesity. .Arch Intern Med 159::837. ,1999. .
Puddu G, Ippolito E, Postachini F: A classification of Achilles tendon disease. .Am J Sports Med 4::145. ,1976. .
Nesse E, Finsen V: Poor results after resection for Haglund’s heel: analysis of 35 heels in 23 patients after 3 years. .Acta Orthop Scand 65::107. ,1994. .
Saxena A: Return to athletic activity after foot and ankle surgery: a preliminary report on select procedures. .J Foot Ankle Surg 39::114. ,2000. .
Saxena A: Surgery for chronic Achilles tendon problems. .J Foot Ankle Surg 34::294. ,1995. .
Leach RE, Schepsis AA, Takai H: Long-term results of surgical management of Achilles tendinitis in runners. .Clin Orthop 282::208. ,1992. .
Kaufman K, Brodine S, Shaffer R, et al: The effect of foot structure and range of motion on musculoskeletal overuse injuries. .Am J Sports Med 27::585. ,1999. .
Testa V, Maffulli N, Capasso G, et al: Percutaneous longitudinal tenotomy in chronic Achilles tendonitis. .Bull Hosp Jt Dis 54::241. ,1996. .
Maffulli N, Binfield PM, Moore D, et al: Surgical decompression of chronic central core lesions of the Achilles tendon. .Am J Sports Med 27::747. ,1999. .
Maffulli N, Testa V, Capasso G, et al: Results of percutaneous longitudinal tenotomy for Achilles tendinopathy in middle- and long-distance runners. .Am J Sports Med 25::835. ,1997. .
Kvist H, Kvist M: The operative treatment of chronic calcaneal paratenonitis. .J Bone Joint Surg Br 62::353. ,1980. .
Saxena A: Soft tissue anchors. .J Foot Ankle Surg 37::169. ,1998. .
Lindholm A: A new method of operation in subcutaneous rupture of the Achilles tendon. .Acta Chir Scand 117::261. ,1959. .
Hansen ST: “Heel Cord Injuries,” in Functional Reconstruction of the Foot and Ankle, p 40, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2000..
Nicolaisen T, Skovgaard D, Kjaer M: Conservative treatment of a partial Achilles tendon rupture with an intratendinous lesion. .Scand J Med Sci Sports 7::191. ,1997. .
Zadek I: An operation for the cure of Achillobursitis. .Am J Surg 43::542. ,1939. .
Taylor GJ: Prominence of the calcaneus: is operation justified. ?J Bone Joint Surg Br 68::467. ,1986. .
Pauker M, Katz K, Yosipovitch Z: Calcaneal ostectomy for Haglund disease. .J Foot Surg 31::588. ,1992. .
Jones D, James SL: Partial calcaneal ostectomy for retrocalcaneal bursitis. .Am J Sports Med 12::72. ,1984. .
Keck SW, Kelly PJ: Bursitis of the posterior part of the heel: evaluation of the surgical treatment of eighteen patients. .J Bone Joint Surg Am 47::467. ,1965. .
Haglund P: Beitrag zur klinik der achillessehne. .Zschr Orthop Chir 49::49. ,1928. .
Angermann P: Chronic retrocalcaneal bursitis treated by resection of the calcaneus. .Foot Ankle 10::285. ,1990. .
Kolodziej P, Glisson R, Nunley J: Risk of avulsion of the Achilles tendon after partial excision for treatment of insertional tendonitis and Haglund’s deformity: a biomechanical study. .Foot Ankle Int 20::433. ,1999. .
Weil L: Grand rounds: Haglund’s deformity and retrocalcaneal, intratendinous spurring. .J Foot Ankle Surg 35::362. ,1996. .
Pinar H, Yesiller E: Indomethacin for prevention of heterotopic ossification after total hip arthroplasty. .J Arthroplasty 7::57. ,1992. .
Kjaersgaard-Andersen P, Ritter M: Short-term treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications to prevent heterotopic bone formation after total arthroplasty: a preliminary report. .Clin Orthop 279::157. ,1992. .
Saltzman CL, Tearse DS: Achilles tendon injuries. .J Am Acad Orthop Surg 6::316. ,1998. .
The authors reviewed 91 surgical procedures in 87 patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy. There were 62 males and 25 females (mean age, 44.9 years). The average interval between surgery and review for the group was 4.2 years (range, 1 to 10 years). Twenty patients underwent peritenolysis, with a mean return-to-activity time of 7.7 weeks. Four patients with concomitant bony procedures had significantly longer return-to-activity times than 16 patients who underwent peritenolysis only. The mean return-to-activity time was 13.2 weeks in 15 patients who had Achilles debridement for mucoid degeneration, 14.4 weeks in 32 Achilles tendocalcinosis repair patients, 18.6 weeks in 24 patients who had retrocalcaneal exostectomy procedures, and 34.0 weeks in 5 patients who had chronic Achilles rupture repair. Athletic patients (n = 47) had significantly shorter return-to-activity times than active (n = 38) and sedentary (n = 6) patients. Males returned to activity faster than females. Runners returned to activity faster than other patients. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 93(4): 283-291, 2003)