Alexander IM, Chao EYS, Johnson KA: The assessment of dynamic foot to ground contact forces and plantar pressure distribution: a review of the evolution of current techniques and clinical applications. .Foot Ankle 11::152. ,1990. .
Boulton AJM, Hardisty CA, Betts RP: Dynamic foot pressure and other studies as diagnostic and management aids in diabetic neuropathy. .Diabetes Care 6::26. ,1983. .
Hsi WL, Ulbrecht JS, Perry JC, et al: Plantar pressure threshold for ulceration. .Diabetes 42::103A. ,1993. .
Fernando DJS, Masson EA, Veves A, et al: Relationship of limited joint mobility to abnormal foot pressures and diabetic foot ulceration. .Diabetes Care 14::8. ,1991. .
Cavanagh PR, Ulbrecht JS: Clinical plantar pressure measurement in diabetes: rationale and methodology. .The Foot 4::123. ,1994. .
Cracchiolo A: The rheumatoid foot and ankle: pathology and treatment. .The Foot 3::126. ,1993. .
O’Brien TS, Hart TS, Gould J: Extraosseous manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis in the foot and ankle. .Clin Orthop 340::26. ,1997. .
Minns RJ, Craxford AD: Pressure under the forefoot in rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison of static and dynamic methods of assessment. .Clin Orthop 187::235. ,1984. .
Gerber LH, Hunt GC: Evaluation and management of the rheumatoid foot. .Bull N Y Acad Med 61::359. ,1985. .
Diamonte P, Light H: Pathomechanics, gait deviations and treatment of the rheumatoid foot. .Phys Ther 62::1148. ,1982. .
Isacson J, Brostrom LA: Gait deviations in rheumatoid arthritis: an electrogoniometric investigation. .J Biomech 21::451. ,1988. .
Keenan MAE, Peabody TD, Gronley JK, et al: Valgus deformities of the feet and characteristics of gait in patients who have rheumatoid arthritis. .J Bone Joint Surg Am 73::237. ,1991. .
Donaghue VM, Veves A: Foot pressure measurement. .Orthop Phys Ther Clin North Am 6::1. ,1997. .
Woodburn J, Helliwell PS: Relation between heel position and the distribution of forefoot plantar pressures and skin callosities in rheumatoid arthritis. .Ann Rheum Dis 55::806. ,1996. .
Bitzan P, Giurea A, Wanivenhaus A: Plantar pressure distribution after resection of the metatarsal heads in rheumatoid arthritis. .Foot Ankle Int 18::391. ,1997. .
Betts RP, Stockley I, Getty JM, et al: Foot pressure studies in the assessment of forefoot arthroplasty in the rheumatoid foot. .Foot Ankle 8::315. ,1988. .
Woodburn J, Stableford Z, Helliwell PS: Preliminary investigation of debridement of plantar callosities in rheumatoid arthritis. .Rheumatology 39::652. ,2000. .
Lord M, Reynolds DP, Hughes JR: Foot pressure measurement: a review of clinical findings. .J Biomed Eng 8::283. ,1986. .
Soames RW: Foot pressure patterns during gait. .J Biomed Eng 7::120. ,1985. .
Barnett SJ: International protocol guidelines for plantar pressure measurement. .The Diabetic Foot 1::137. ,1998. .
Young A, Dixey J, Cox N, et al: How does functional disability in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affect patients and their lives? results of 5 years of follow-up in 732 patients from the Early RA Study (ERAS). .Rheumatology 39::603. ,2000. .
Ferrari J: A review of the foot deformities seen in juvenile chronic arthritis. .The Foot 8::193. ,1998. .
Chen H, Nigg BM, Hulliger M, et al: Influence of sensory input on plantar pressure distribution. .Clin Biomech 10::271. ,1995. .
Scott DL, Shipley M, Dawson A, et al: Strategies for improving clinical effectiveness. .Br J Rheumatol 37::546. ,1998. .
Woodburn J, Helliwell PS: Foot problems in rheumatology. .Br J Rheumatol 36::932. ,1996. .
Veves A, Hey EM, Boulton AJM: The use of specially padded hosiery in the painful rheumatoid foot. .The Foot 1::175. ,1992. .
Potter J, Potter MJ: Effect of callus removal on peak plantar pressures. .The Foot 10::23. ,2000. .
Wollheim F: “Rheumatoid Arthritis: Clinical Picture,” in Oxford Textbook of Rheumatology, Vol 2, ed by PJ Maddison, DM Isenberg, P Woo, et al, p 639, Oxford University Press, Oxford. ,1993. .
Tinley P: Appliances for the rheumatic foot. .Baillieres Clin Rheumatol 1::383. ,1987. .
Young M, Coffey J, Taylor PM, et al: Weight bearing ultrasound in diabetic and rheumatoid arthritis patients. .The Foot 5::76. ,1995. .
Sharma M, Dhanendran M, Hutton WC, et al: Changes in load bearing in the rheumatoid foot. .Ann Rheum Dis 38::549. ,1979. .
Collis WJMF, Jayson MIV: Measurement of pedal pressures. .Ann Rheum Dis 31::215. ,1972. .
We sought to investigate the magnitude and duration of peak forefoot plantar pressures in rheumatoid arthritis. The spatial and temporal characteristics of forefoot plantar pressures were measured in 25 patients with a positive diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis of 5 to 10 years’ duration (mean, 8 years) and a comparison group using a platform-based pressure-measurement system. There were no significant differences between groups in the magnitude of peak plantar pressure in the forefoot region. Significant differences were, however, noted for temporal aspects of foot-pressure measurement. The duration of loading over sensors detecting peak plantar pressure was significantly longer in the rheumatoid arthritis group. In addition, the rheumatoid arthritis group demonstrated significantly greater force–time integrals. Significant increases in the temporal parameters of plantar pressure distribution, rather than those of amplitude, may be characteristic of the rheumatoid foot. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 94(3): 255–260, 2004)