Baer WS: The treatment of chronic osteomyelitis with the maggot. .J Bone Joint Surg 13::438. ,1931. .
Root-Bernstein R: Honey, Mud, Maggots and Other Medical Marvels: The Science Behind Folk Remedies and Old Wives’ Tales, Houghton Mifflin Co, Boston. ,1997. .
Claxton MJ, Armstrong DG, Short B, et al: 5 questions—and answers—about maggot debridement therapy. .Adv Wound Care 16::99. ,2003. .
Armstrong DG, Mossel J, Nixon BP, et al: Maggot debridement therapy: a primer. .JAPMA 92::398. ,2002. .
Bunkis J, Gherini S, Walton RL: Maggot therapy revisited. .West J Med 142::554. ,1985. .
Sherman RA: Use of Medicinal Maggots, University of California, Irvine. ,2002. .
Sherman RA, Sherman J, Gilead L, et al: Maggot debridement therapy in outpatients. .Arch Phys Med Rehabil 82::1226. ,2001. .
Mumcuoglu KY, Ingber A, Gilead L, et al: Maggot therapy for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. .Diabetes Care 21::2030. ,1998. .
Mumcuoglu KY, Ingber A, Gilead L, et al: Maggot therapy for the treatment of intractable wounds. .Int J Dermatol 38::623. ,1999. .
Mumcuoglu KY, Miller J, Mumcuoglu M, et al: Destruction of bacteria in the digestive tract of the maggot of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae). .J Med Entomol 38::161. ,2001. .
Armstrong DG, Lavery LA, Harkless LB: Validation of a diabetic wound classification system: the contribution of depth, infection, and vascular disease to the risk of amputation. .Diabetes Care 21::855. ,1998. .
Bongard O, Krahenbuhl B: Predicting amputation in severe ischemia: the value of transcutaneous PO2 measurement. .J Bone Joint Surg Br 70::465. ,1988. .
Hauser CJ, Klein SR, Mehringer CM, et al: Assessment of perfusion in the diabetic foot by regional transcutaneous oximetry. .Diabetes 33::527. ,1984. .
Forst T, Pfutzner A, Bauersachs R, et al: Comparison of the microvascular response to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and postocclusive ischemia in the diabetic foot. .J Diabetes Comp 11::291. ,1997. .
Wyss CR, Matsen FA, Simmons CW, et al: Transcutaneous oxygen tension measurements on limbs of diabetic and nondiabetic patients with peripheral vascular disease. .Surgery 95::339. ,1984. .
International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot: International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot, International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot, Maastricht, the Netherlands. ,1999. .
Kirkwood BR: Essentials of Medical Statistics, Black-well, Oxford. ,1988. .
Allon M: Prophylaxis against dialysis catheter-related bacteremia with a novel antimicrobial lock solution. .Clin Infect Dis 36::1539. ,2003. .
Jurewitsch B, Lee T, Park J, et al: Taurolidine 2% as an antimicrobial lock solution for prevention of recurrent catheter-related bloodstream infections. .JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 22::242. ,1998. .
Lavery LA, Armstrong DG, Wunderlich RP, et al: Diabetic foot syndrome: evaluating the prevalence and incidence of foot pathology in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites from a diabetes disease management cohort. .Diabetes Care 26::1435. ,2003. .
We sought to assess, in a case-control model, the potential efficacy of maggot debridement therapy in 60 nonambulatory patients (mean ± SD age, 72.2 ± 6.8 years) with neuroischemic diabetic foot wounds (University of Texas grade C or D wounds below the malleoli) and peripheral vascular disease. Twenty-seven of these patients (45%) healed during 6 months of review. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients healing in the maggot debridement therapy versus control group (57% versus 33%). Of patients who healed, time to healing was significantly shorter in the maggot therapy than in the control group (18.5 ± 4.8 versus 22.4 ± 4.4 weeks). Approximately one in five patients (22%) underwent a high-level (above-the-foot) amputation. Patients in the control group were three times as likely to undergo amputation (33% versus 10%). Although there was no significant difference in infection prevalence in patients undergoing maggot therapy versus controls (80% versus 60%), there were significantly more antibiotic-free days during follow-up in patients who received maggot therapy (126.8 ± 30.3 versus 81.9 ± 42.1 days). Maggot debridement therapy reduces short-term morbidity in nonambulatory patients with diabetic foot wounds. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95(3): 254–257, 2005)