• 1

    Landers P: “Introduction and Evaluation of Hallux Abducto Valgus,” in Comprehensive Textbook of Foot Surgery, 2nd Ed, Vol 1, ed by ED McGlamry, AS Banks, MS Downey, p 459, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. ,1992. .

  • 2

    Lynch FR: “Juvenile Hallux Abducto Valgus,” in Comprehensive Textbook of Foot Surgery, 2nd Ed, Vol 1, ed by ED McGlamry, AS Banks, MS Downey, p 566, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. ,1992. .

  • 3

    Banks AS, McGlamry ED: “Hallux Limitus and Rigidus,” in Comprehensive Textbook of Foot Surgery, 2nd Ed, Vol 1, ed by ED McGlamry, AS Banks, MS Downey, p 600, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. ,1992. .

  • 4

    Murray MP, Kory RC, Sepic SB: Walking patterns of normal women. .Arch Phys Med Rehabil 51::637. ,1970. .

  • 5

    Murray PM, Drought B, Kory RC: Walking patterns of normal men. .J Bone Joint Surg Am 46::335. ,1964. .

  • 6

    Holden JP, Cavanagh PR, Williams KR, et al: “Foot Angles During Walking and Running,” in Biomechanics IX-A, ed by D Winter, R Norman, R Wells, et al, p 451, Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL. ,1985. .

  • 7

    Clarkson BH: Absorbent paper method for recording foot placement during gait. .Phys Ther 63::3. ,1983. .

  • 8

    Tollafield DR, Merriman LM: “Assessment of the Locomotor System,” in Assessment of the Lower Limb, ed by LM Merriman, DR Tollafield, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh. ,1995. .

  • 9

    Root ML, Orien WP, Weed JH: Normal and Abnormal Function of the Foot, Vol 2, Clinical Biomechanics Corp, Los Angeles. ,1977. .

  • 10

    Stein HC: Hallux valgus. .Surg Gynecol Obstet 66::889. ,1938. .

  • 11

    Gamble FO, Yale I: Clinical Foot Roentgenology, 2nd Ed, Williams & Wilkins, New York. ,1975. .

  • 12

    Taranto J, Taranto MJ, Bryant A, et al: Angle of gait: a comparative reliability study using footprints and the EMED-SF®. .The Foot 15::7. ,2005. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Taranto MJ, Taranto J, Bryant A, et al: Radiographic investigation of angular and linear measurements including first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion and rearfoot to forefoot axis angle. .J Foot Ankle Surg 44::190. ,2005. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Joseph J: Range of movement of the great toe in men. .J Bone Joint Surg Br 36::450. ,1954. .

  • 15

    Buell T, Green DR, Risser J: Measurement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion. .JAPMA 78::439. ,1988. .

  • 16

    Roukis TS, Jacobs PM, Dawson DM, et al: A prospective comparison of clinical, radiographic, and intraoperative features of hallux rigidus. .J Foot Ankle Surg 41::76. ,2002. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Montagne J, Chevrot A, Galmiche JM: Atlas of Foot Radiology, Masson, Paris. ,1981. .

  • 18

    Freychat P, Belli A, Carret JP, et al: Relationship between rearfoot and forefoot orientation and ground reaction forces during running. .Med Sci Sports Exerc 28::225. ,1996. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Bryant AR, Mahoney B, Tinley P: Lateral intermetatarsal angle: a useful measurement of metatarsus primus elevatus? JAPMA 91: 251. ,2001. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Baum I, Spencer AM: Limb dominance: its relationship to foot length. .JAPA 70::505. ,1980. .

  • 21

    Herring KM: Injury prediction among runners: preliminary report on limb dominance. .JAPMA 83::523. ,1993. .

  • 22

    Skinner S: “Development of Gait,” in Human Walking, 2nd Ed, ed by J Rose, J Gamble, p 123, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. ,1994. .

  • 23

    Ross FD: The relationship of abnormal foot pronation to hallux valgus: a pilot study. .Prosthet Orthot Int 10::72. ,1986. .

  • 24

    Camasta CA: Hallux limitus and hallux rigidus: clinical examination, radiographic findings and natural history. .Clin Podiatr Med Surg 13::423. ,1996. .

  • 25

    Chapman C: Functional hallux limitus: the essentials. .Br J Podiatry 2::40. ,1999. .

  • 26

    Bryant A, Tinley P, Singer K: A comparison of radiographic measurements in normal, hallux valgus, and hallux limitus feet. .J Foot Ankle Surg 39::39. ,2000. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Hardy RH, Clapham JCR: Observations on hallux valgus based on a controlled series. .J Bone Joint Surg Br 33::376. ,1951. .

  • 28

    Duke H, Newman LM, Bruskoff BL, et al: Relative metatarsal length patterns in hallux abducto valgus. .JAPA 72::1. ,1982. .

  • 29

    Saragas NP, Becker PJ: Comparative radiographic analysis of parameters in feet with and without hallux valgus. .Foot Ankle Int 16::139. ,1995. .

  • 30

    Villadot A: Metatarsalgia due to biomechanical alteration of the forefoot. .Orthop Clin North Am 4::165. ,1973. .

  • 31

    Drago JJ, Oloff L, Jacobs AM: A comprehensive review of hallux limitus. .J Foot Surg 23::213. ,1984. .

  • 32

    Ìncel NA, Genc H, Erdem HR, et al: Muscle imbalance in hallux valgus: an electromyographic study. .Am J Phys Med Rehabil 82::345. ,2003. .

  • 33

    Camasta CA: “Radiographic Evaluation and Classification of Metatarsus Primus Elevatus,” in Reconstructive Surgery of the Foot and Leg: Update ’94, ed by C Camasta, N Vickers, J Ruch, p 122, The Podiatry Institute, Tucker, GA. ,1994. .

  • 34

    Cicchinelli LD, Camasta CA, McGlamry ED: Iatrogenic metatarsus primus elevatus: etiology, evaluation, and surgical management. .JAPMA 87::165. ,1997. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Meyer JO, Nishon LR, Weiss L, et al: Metatarsus primus elevatus and the etiology of hallux rigidus. .J Foot Surg 26::237. ,1987. .

  • 36

    Bingold AC, Collins DH: Hallux rigidus. .J Bone Joint Surg Br 32::214. ,1950. .

  • 37

    Birke JA, Cornwall MW, Jackson M: Relationship between hallux limitus and ulceration of the great toe. .J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 10::172. ,1988. .

  • 38

    Wearing SC, Urry SR, Perlman PR, et al: Serial measurement of calcaneal pitch during midstance. .JAPMA 89::188. ,1999. .

  • 39

    Bojsen-Moeller F: Calcaneocuboid joint and stability of the longitudinal arch of the foot at high and low gear push off. .J Anat 129::165. ,1979. .

  • 40

    Neylon TA, Johnson BA, Laroche RA: Use of the Lapidus bunionectomy in first ray insufficiency. .Clin Podiatr Med Surg 18::365. ,2001. .

  • 41

    Green DR, Carol A: Planal dominance. .JAPA 74::98. ,1984. .

  • 42

    Garrow AP, Papageorgiou A, Silman AJ, et al: The grading of hallux valgus: the Manchester Scale. .JAPMA 91::74. ,2001. .

Analysis of Dynamic Angle of Gait and Radiographic Features in Subjects with Hallux Abducto Valgus and Hallux Limitus

Julie Taranto Centre for Musculoskeletal Studies, University of Western Australia, and Department of Surgery and Pathology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Search for other papers by Julie Taranto in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 MMedSc
,
Michael J. Taranto Centre for Musculoskeletal Studies, University of Western Australia, and Department of Surgery and Pathology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Search for other papers by Michael J. Taranto in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 MMedSc
,
Alan R. Bryant Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Podiatric Medicine, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.

Search for other papers by Alan R. Bryant in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
, and
Kevin P. Singer Centre for Musculoskeletal Studies, University of Western Australia, and Department of Surgery and Pathology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Search for other papers by Kevin P. Singer in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
Restricted access

Background: Hallux abducto valgus and hallux limitus are two commonly encountered foot deformities causing altered structure and function of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and subsequent compensatory mechanisms. This study was undertaken to determine the relationships between these two deformities and transverse plane position of the foot, or angle of gait, and several radiographic angular and linear parameters with established reliability.

Methods: A convenience sample of 23 subjects with hallux abducto valgus, 22 subjects with hallux limitus, and 20 control subjects was used. Radiographic parameters were standardized weightbearing views and included lateral stressed dorsiflexion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, composite, dorsoplantar, and lateral views. Angle of gait was obtained from powdered footprints recorded on paper. Two left and two right footprints identified on each trial were used to calculate angle of gait.

Results: The findings of the study suggest that an association between angle of gait and the presence of hallux abducto valgus or hallux limitus does not exist. Possible explanations may relate to the large variability of normal angle of gait, the need to identify factors extrinsic to the foot capable of affecting transverse plane orientation of the foot, and the addition of information relating to symptoms.

Conclusions: In this study, the presence of hallux abducto valgus or hallux limitus did not correspond to an association with a particular angle of gait. Length and elevation of the first metatarsal were associated in subjects with hallux abducto valgus and hallux limitus. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 97(3): 175–188, 2007)

Corresponding author: Julie Taranto, MMedSc, Centre for Musculoskeletal Studies, University of Western Australia, and Department of Surgery and Pathology, Royal Perth Hospital, Level 2, MRF Bldg, Rear 50 Murray St, Perth, Western Australia, 6000 Australia.