• 1

    Cavanagh PR, Morag E, Boulton AJ, et al: The relationship of static foot structure to dynamic foot function. .J Biomech 30::243. ,1997. .

  • 2

    Song J, Hillstrom HJ, Secord D, et al: Foot type biomechanics: comparison of planus and rectus foot types. .JAPMA 86::16. ,1996. .

  • 3

    Burns J, Crosbie J, Hunt A, et al: The effect of pes cavus on foot pain and plantar pressure. .Clin Biomech 20::877. ,2005. .

  • 4

    McPoil TG, Cornwall MW: Variability of the center of pressure pattern integral during walking. .JAPMA 88::259. ,1998. .

  • 5

    Grundy M, Tosh PA, McLeish RD, et al: An investigation of the centres of pressure under the foot while walking. .J Bone Joint Surg Br 57::98. ,1975. .

  • 6

    Katoh Y, Chao EY, Laughman RK, et al: Biomechanical analysis of foot function during gait and clinical applications. .Clin Orthop Relat Res 177::23. ,1983. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Williams DS III, McClay IS, Hamill J: Arch structure and injury patterns in runners. .Clin Biomech 16::341. ,2001. .

  • 8

    Hertel J, Gay MR, Denegar CR: Differences in postural control during single-leg stance among healthy individuals with different foot types. .J Athl Train 37::129. ,2002. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Redmond AC, Crosbie J, Ouvrier RA: Development and validation of a novel rating system for scoring standing foot posture: the Foot Posture Index. .Clin Biomech 21::89. ,2006. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Cain LE, Nicholson LL, Adams RD, et al: Foot morphology and foot/ankle injury in indoor football. .J Sci Med Sport 10::311. ,2007. .

  • 11

    Menz HB, Munteanu SE: Validity of 3 clinical techniques for the measurement of static foot posture in older people. .J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 35::479. ,2005. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Hennig EM, Rosenbaum D: Pressure distribution patterns under the feet of children in comparison with adults. .Foot Ankle Int 11::306. ,1991. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Menz HB: Analysis of paired data in physical therapy research: time to stop double dipping?. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 35::477. ,2005. .

  • 14

    Fleiss JL: “Reliability of Measurement,” in The Design and Analysis of Clinical Experiments, ed by JL Fleiss, p 6, John Wiley & Sons, New York. ,1986. .

  • 15

    Portney LG, Watkins MP: Foundations of Clinical Research: Applications to Practice, 2nd Ed, Prentice-Hall Inc, Upper Saddle River, NJ. ,2000. .

  • 16

    Olmsted LC, Hertel J: Influence of foot type and orthotics on static and dynamic control. .J Sport Rehabil 13::54. ,2004. .

  • 17

    Brandes CB, Smith RW: Characterization of patients with primary peroneus longus tendinopathy: a review of twenty-two cases. .Foot Ankle Int 21::462. ,2000. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Lutter LD: Cavus foot in runners. .Foot Ankle Int 1::225. ,1981. .

  • 19

    Yates B, White S: The incidence and risk factors in the development of medial tibial stress syndrome among naval recruits. .Am J Sports Med 32::772. ,2004. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Nube VL, Molyneaux L, Yue DK: Biomechanical risk factors associated with neuropathic ulceration of the hallux in people with diabetes mellitus. .JAPMA 96::189. ,2006. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    James SL, Bates BT, Osternig LR: Injuries to runners. .Am J Sports Med 6::40. ,1978. .

  • 22

    Larsen E, Angermann P: Association of ankle instability and foot deformity. .Acta Orthop Scand 61::136. ,1990. .

  • 23

    Scherer PR, Sobiesk GA: The center of pressure index in the evaluation of foot orthoses in shoes. .Clin Podiatr Med Surg 11::355. ,1994. .

Effect of Foot Morphology on Center-of-Pressure Excursion During Barefoot Walking

Lilian Wong B App Sc (Phty) Hons1, Adrienne Hunt PhD1, Joshua Burns PhD2, and Jack Crosbie PhD1
View More View Less
  • 1 Discipline of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, Australia.
  • | 2 Institute for Neuromuscular Research, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead/Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
Restricted access

Background: The path of the center of pressure during walking varies among individuals by deviating to a greater or lesser extent toward the medial or lateral border of the foot. It is unclear whether this variance is systematic and is affected by foot posture. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between foot morphology and center-of-pressure excursion during barefoot walking.

Methods: Pressure data were collected from 83 participants whose foot type had been classified as supinated, normal, or pronated according to the Foot Posture Index. Three center-of-pressure variables were analyzed: medial excursion area, lateral excursion area, and total excursion area.

Results: Across the spectrum of foot types, we found that the more supinated a participant’s foot posture, the larger the area of lateral center-of-pressure excursion, and, conversely, the more pronated the foot posture, the smaller the area of lateral center-of-pressure excursion. Furthermore, the supinated foot type had a relatively larger center-of-pressure total excursion area, and the pronated foot type had a relatively smaller center-of-pressure total excursion area.

Conclusions: These results indicate the importance of assessing foot posture when measuring center of pressure and may help explain regional differences in pain and injury location among foot types. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(2): 112–117, 2008)

Corresponding author: Joshua Burns, PhD, Institute for Neuromuscular Research, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia 2145. (E-mail: joshuab2@chw.edu.au)