• 1

    Tettambel M, Cicora A, Lay E: Recording of the cranial rhythmic impulse. .J Am Osteopath Assoc 78::149. ,1978. .

  • 2

    Upledger JE, Retzlaff EW, Vredevood MFA: Diagnosis and treatment of temporoparietal suture head pain. .Osteopath Med (July):19. ,1978. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Babler WJ, Persing JA: “Experimental Alteration of Cranial Suture Growth: Effects on the Neurocranium, Basic Cranium, and Midface,” in Factors and Mechanisms Influencing Bone Growth, p 333, Alan R Liss Inc, New York. ,1982. .

  • 4

    Retzlaff EW, Upledger JE, Mitchell FL Jr, et al: Aging of cranial sutures in humans [abstract]. .Anat Rec 193::663. ,1979. .

  • 5

    Foley WJ, Kokich VG: The effects of mechanical immobilization on sutural development in the growing rabbit. .J Neurosurg 53::794. ,1980. .

  • 6

    Blum C: Biodynamics of the cranium: a survey. .Cranio 3::164. ,1985. .

  • 7

    Behrents RG, Carlson DS, Abdelnour T: In vivo analysis of bone strain about the sagittal suture in macatta mulatta during masticatory movements. .J Dent Res 57::904. ,1978. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Smith G: Craniodontics: new technology of the twenty-first century. ICNR Web site. http://www.icnr.com/articles/craniodontics.html. Updated 2005. Accessed March 31. ,2008. .

  • 9

    Gelb H, Gelb M: “An Orthopedic Approach to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Craniocervical Mandibular Disorders,” in New Concepts in Craniomandibular and Chronic Pain Management, ed by H Gelb, p 215, Mosby-Wolf, London. ,1994. .

  • 10

    Yoshino G, Higashi K, Nakamura T: Changes in weight distribution at the feet due to occlusal supporting zone loss during clenching. .Cranio 21::271. ,2003. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Fink M, Wahling K, Stiesch-Scholz M, et al: The functional relationship between the craniomandibular system, cervical spine and sacroiliac joint: a preliminary study. .Cranio 21::202. ,2003. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Nicolakis P, Nicolakis M, Piehslinger E, et al: Relationship between craniomandibular disorders and poor posture. .Cranio 18::106. ,2000. .

  • 13

    Lippold C, Danesh G, Schilgen M, et al: Relationship between thoracic, lordotic and pelvic inclination and craniofacial morphology in adults. .Angle Orthod 76::779. ,2006. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Rothbart BA: Relationship of functional leg-length discrepancy to abnormal pronation. .JAPMA 96::499. ,2006. .

  • 15

    Redmond A, Burns J, Ouvrier R, et al: An initial appraisal of the validity of a criterion based, observational clinical rating system for foot posture. .J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 31::160. ,2001. .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Frymann V: Relation of disturbances of craniosacral mechanisms to symptomatology of the newborn: study of 1,250 infants. .J Am Osteopath Assoc 65::1059. ,1966. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Wheaton C: “Mandibular Rest Position: Relationship to Occlusion, Posture and Muscle Activity,” in New Concepts in Craniomandibular and Chronic Pain Management, p 163, Mosby-Wolf, London. ,1994. .

  • 18

    Rocabado M, Johnston BE Jr, Blakney MG: Physical therapy and dentistry: an overview. .J Craniomandibular Pract 1::46. ,1983. .

  • 19

    Huggare J, Pirttiniemi P, Serlo W: Head posture and dentofacial morphology in subjects treated for scoliosis. .Proc Finn Dent Soc 87::151. ,1991. .

  • 20

    Inman VT, Mann RA: “Biomechanics of the Foot and Ankle,” in DuVries’ Surgery of the Foot, ed by VT Inman, 3rd Ed, p 3, CV Mosby, St Louis. ,1973. .

  • 21

    Rothbart BA, Estabrook L: Excessive pronation: a major biomechanical determinant in the development of chondromalacia and pelvic lists. .J Manipulative Physiol Ther 11::373. ,1988. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Rothbart BA: Medial column foot systems: an innovative tool for improving posture. .J Bodyworks and Movement Ther 6::37. ,2002. .

  • 23

    Mitchell F Jr, Mitchell P: “Evaluation and Treatment of the Pelvis and Sacrum,” in The Muscle Energy Manual, Vol 3, p 94, MET Press, East Lansing, MI. ,1999. .

  • 24

    Denslow J, Chace I: Mechanical stresses in the human lumbar spine and pelvis. .J Am Osteopath Assoc 61::705. ,1962. .

  • 25

    Rothbart BA: Postural distortions: the foot connection. Online Journal of Sports Medicine. 2004. http://www.sportmedicina.com/postural_imbalances.htm. Accessed September 1. ,2004. .

  • 26

    Rothbart BA: Ascending and descending patterns. Proprioceptive Stimulation: An Effective Therapeutic Tool in Resolving Chronic Pain by Correcting Postural Distortions (Poor Posture): Prof/Dr Rothbart’s Site for Health Care Researchers. http://www.rothbartsfoot.info/BiteToPelvis.html. Accessed March 7. ,2006. .

  • 27

    Oleski SL, Smith G, Crow WT: Radiographic evidence of cranial bone mobility. .Cranio 20::34. ,2002. .

  • 28

    Zink G, Lawson W: An osteopathic structural examination and functional interpretation of the soma. .Osteopath Ann 7::12. ,1979. .

  • 29

    Gregory TM: Temporomandibular disorder associated with sacroiliac sprain. .J Manipulative Physiol Ther 16::256. ,1993. .

  • 30

    Blum C: Chiropractic and dentistry in the 21st century. .Cranio 22::1. ,2004. .

  • 31

    Denton DG: From head to foot. .Basal Facts 8::203. ,1986. .

  • 32

    Fink M, Wahling K, Stiesch-Scholz M, et al: The functional relationship between the craniomandibular system, cervical spine and the sacroiliac joint: a preliminary investigation. .Cranio 21::202. ,2003. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Rothbart BA: Ascending foot cranial model. Proprioceptive Stimulation: An Effective Therapeutic Tool in Resolving Chronic Pain by Correcting Postural Distortions (Poor Posture): Prof/Dr Rothbart’s Site for Health Care Researchers. http://www.rothbartsfoot.info/AFCM.html. Accessed October 5. ,2006. .

  • 34

    Kuchera W, Kuchera M: Osteopathic Principles in Practice, Rev, 2nd Ed, p 336, Greyden Press, Columbus, OH. ,1993. .

  • 35

    McManus I, Bryden M: Geschwind’s theory of cerebral lateralization: developing a formal, causal model. .Psychol Bull 110::237. ,1991. .

  • 36

    Rea W, Casner VH, Denslow JS, et al: A progressive structural study of school children: an 8 year study of children in the rural areas of Adair County, Missouri. .J Am Osteopath Assoc 51::155. ,1951. .

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37

    Strachan F, Robinson M: Short leg linked to malocclusion. Osteopathic News (April):. 1965. .

  • 38

    Milani R, De Periere DD, Lapeyre L, et al: Relationship between dental occlusion and posture. .Cranio 18::127. ,2000. .

Vertical Facial Dimensions Linked to Abnormal Foot Motion

Brian A. Rothbart GRD BioMed Inc, R&D Biomechanics, 468 Main St, Safety Harbor, FL 34695. (E-mail: rothbartsfoot@yahoo.com)

Search for other papers by Brian A. Rothbart in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DPM, PhD
Restricted access

Background: Twenty-two children from Jiutepec, Mexico, were studied to determine whether a correlation exists among foot motion, the position of the innominates, and vertical facial dimensions (ie, the distances between the outer corners of the eyes [the exocanthions] and the ipsilateral outer margins of the lips).

Methods: Three null hypotheses were constructed and tested using the one-sample t test. Hypothesis A: there is no relationship between abnormal foot pronation and hip position; Hypothesis B: there is no relationship between hip position and vertical facial dimensions; and Hypothesis C: there is no relationship between abnormal foot pronation and vertical facial dimensions.

Results: The three null hypotheses were rejected.

Conclusions: An ascending foot cranial model was theorized to explain the findings generated from this study: 1) due to the action of gravity on the body, abnormal foot pronation (inward, forward, and downward rotation) displaces the innominates anteriorly (forward) and downward, with the more anteriorly rotated innominate corresponding to the more pronated foot; 2) anterior rotation of the innominates draws the temporal bones into anterior (internal) rotation, with the more anteriorly rotated temporal bone being ipsilateral to the more anteriorly rotated innominate bone; 3) the more anteriorly rotated temporal bone is linked to an ipsilateral inferior cant of the sphenoid and superior cant of the maxilla, resulting in a relative loss of vertical facial dimensions; and 4) the relative loss of vertical facial dimensions is on the same side as the more pronated foot. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(3): 189–196, 2008)