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Changes in Gait Economy Between Full-Contact Custom-made Foot Orthoses and Prefabricated Inserts in Patients with Musculoskeletal Pain

A Randomized Clinical Trial

Leslie C. Trotter DC, MBA, MSc, CPed(C)1 and Michael Raymond Pierrynowski PhD2
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  • 1 Foot-Knee-Back Clinic, Ancaster, Ontario, Canada.
  • | 2 School of Rehabilitation Science, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
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Background: Specific kinematic and kinetic outcomes have been used to detect biomechanical change while wearing foot orthoses; however, few studies demonstrate consistent effects. We sought to observe changes in walking economy in patients with musculoskeletal pain across 10 weeks while wearing custom-made foot orthoses and prefabricated shoe inserts.

Methods: In this crossover randomized controlled trial, 40 participants wore custom-made orthoses and prefabricated inserts for 4 weeks each, consecutively. The path length ratio was used to quantify walking economy by comparing the undulating path of a point in the pelvis with its direct path averaged across multiple strides.

Results: For the prefab-custom group (n = 27), significant decreases in path length ratio (improved economy of gait) were noted at the initial introduction of prefabricated inserts (P = .02) and custom orthoses (P = .02) but maintained a trend toward improved economy only while wearing custom orthoses (P = .08). For the custom-prefab group (n = 13), there was worsening of the path length ratio that was significant after removing the custom-made orthoses for 4 weeks (P = .01).

Conclusion: For patients with lower-extremity musculoskeletal pain, immediate improvements in economy of gait can be expected with both interventions. It seems, however, that only the custom-made orthoses maintain economy of gait for 4 weeks. Patients who begin wearing custom-made orthoses and then wear prefabricated insoles can expect a decrease in economy of gait. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 98(6): 429–435, 2008)

Corresponding author: Leslie C. Trotter, DC, MBA, MSc, CPed (C), Foot-Knee-Back Clinic, 3 Wilson St E, Ancaster, Ontario L9G 2B3 Canada. (E-mail: leslietrotter@cogeco.ca)