Holloway LM: A Fast Pace Forward: Chronicles of American Podiatry, Pirolli Printing, Bellmawr, NJ. ,1987. .
Flexner A: Medical Education in the United States and Canada. A Report to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Bulletin No. 4, Updike, Boston, 1910. Reproduced by Science & Health Publications, Washington, DC. ,1960. .
Selden WK, Baldwin IL, Blauch LE, et al: “Podiatry Education in the 1960’s: Status and Opportunities,” in Report of the Special Commission on Status of Podiatry Education, American Podiatry Association, Washington DC. ,1961. .
The Project 2000 Commission. Comprehensive Foot Care: The Report of the National Commission on Podiatric Medicine. Washington, DC, American Podiatric Medical Association, Inc. ,1986. .
Friedson E: Profession of Medicine: A Study of the Sociology of Applied Knowledge, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. ,1988. .
Safriet BJ: Closing the gap between can and may in health-care providers’ scopes of practice: a primer for policymakers. .Yale J Regul 19::301. ,2002. .
American Medical Association: Health Care Careers Directory 2008–2009, 36th Ed, AMA, Chicago, IL. ,2008. .
Council on Podiatric Medical Education: Standards and Requirements for Accrediting Colleges of Podiatric Medicine, CPME, Bethesda, MD. ,2008. .
American Medical Association: Initiative to Transform Medical Education, AMA, Chicago, IL. ,2007. .
Council on Podiatric Medical Education: Standards and Requirements for Approval of Residencies in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery, CPME, Bethesda, MD. ,2007. .
Council on Podiatric Medical Education: Eighty-eighth Annual Report, 2007, CPME, Bethesda, MD. ,2007. .
About us. National Board of Podiatric Medical Examiners Web site. Available at: http://www.nbpme.info/AboutUs.htm. Accessed June 3. ,2008. .
News. National Board of Podiatric Medical Examiners Web site. Available at: http://www.nbpme.info/News.html. Accessed June 3. ,2008. .
Certification in foot surgery. American Board of Podiatric Surgery Web site. Available at: http://www.abps.org/content/about/FootSurgery.aspx. Accessed June 3. ,2008. .
Certification in RRA surgery. American Board of Podiatric Surgery Web site. Available at: http://www.abps.org/content/about/RRASurgery.aspx. Accessed June 3. ,2008. .
About ABPOPPM. American Board of Podiatric Orthopedics and Primary Podiatric Medicine Web site. Available at: http://www.abpoppm.org/about/about.html#definition. Accessed June 3. ,2008. .
APMA state reference manual, scope of practice provisions. American Podiatric Medical Association Web site. Available at: http://www.apma.org/s_apma/secmember.asp. Accessed June 3. ,2008. .
US Social Security Act. Part E. miscellaneous provisions. Definitions of services, institutions, etc. 42 USCA § 1395x(r). Social Security Online. Available at: http://www.ssa.gov/OP_Home/ssact/title18/1861.htm. Accessed February 1. ,2008. .
Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education: Orthopaedic Surgery Case Logs: National Data Report, ACGME, Chicago, IL. ,2007. .
Pinzur MS, Mikolyzk D, Aronow MS, et al: Foot and ankle experience in orthopaedic residency. .Foot Ankle Int 24::567. ,2003. .
National Conference of State Legislatures: Fitness, Food and Finding Solutions: Approaches to Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Treatment, NCSL, Denver, CO. ,2006. .
Diabetes statistics. American Diabetes Association Web site. Available at: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-statistics.jsp. Accessed July 2. ,2008. .
Rogers LC, Lavery LA, Armstrong DG: The right to bear legs—an amendment to healthcare: how preventing amputations can save billions for the US health-care system. .JAPMA 98::166. ,2008. .
National diabetes fact sheet United States. 2005. . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2005.pdf. Accessed June 3, 2008.
Your health care team. American Diabetes Association Web site. Available at: http://www.diabetes.org/whos-who-on-your-health-care-team/your-health-care-team.jsp. Accessed June 3. ,2008. .
Podiatric medicine had its own evolution in the medical field apart from allopathic and osteopathic medicine. Podiatrists are well-respected members of the health-care team and have earned recognition as physicians within their education, training, and credentialing processes. Unlike allopathic medical doctors and doctors of osteopathic medicine, whose scope of practice is based upon their education, training, and credentialing processes, podiatrists' scopes of practice are determined by state laws (and are often influenced by politics) with variances across the United States. In contrast to a lack of uniformity in the training and credentialing processes of an allopathic medical doctor, podiatrists complete a streamlined educational process that is competency-based and well-aligned from the undergraduate phase (podiatric medical school) to the postgraduate phase (residency) through the credentialing processes (licensure and certification). Podiatric medical students begin to directly engage in the specialty related to the diagnosis and treatment of the lower extremity much earlier in the educational process than an orthopedist, whose foot and ankle exposure is less extensive by comparison. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(1): 65–72, 2009)