Comparison of Foot Arch in Shod and Unshod Individuals in East Gojjam, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Belta Asnakew AbegazAnatomy Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

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Dawit Habte WoldeyesAnatomy Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

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Getachew Wassihun DessalewAnatomy Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

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Abstract

Background: The human foot has three arches. The medial longitudinal arch is the longest, the highest, and the most important. The development of a normal foot arch is greatly affected by genetic inheritance, differences in the environment, socioeconomic development, body weight, sex, ethnicity, and culture. The purpose of this study was to compare the arch type between shoe-wearing and barefooted individuals.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. The data obtained were checked for clarity and consistency before analysis. The analysis was done using descriptive statistics and chi-square. p-values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant.

Result: From a total of 446 subjects, 217 (48.7%) were males, 131 (29.6%) were urban residents and 226 (50.6 %) were shoe wearers. From the total sample, 46.2%, 42.8%, and 11% are high, normal, and flat-arched individuals, respectively. Of the shoe wearers, 6.7% have a flat arch while 4.3% of the barefooted subjects are flat-arched. Of the total flat-arched subjects, 8.3% are males and 2.7% are females. Of the urban residents, 17.5% have a flat foot and 8.3% of rural residents were flat arched. Among the shoe wearers, 8.8% use closed-toe shoes, and 4.4% that wear sandals are flat-arched.

Conclusion: The result indicates sex, type of shoes, wearing shoes, and being barefooted affected the development of the foot arch.

Corresponding author: Dawit Habte Woldeyes, MSc, Anatomy Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, PO Box 79, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. (E-mail: dwthabte@gmail.com)