Drug based treatment of superficial fungal infections, such as onychomycosis, is not the only defense. Sanitization of footwear such as shoes, socks/stockings, and other textiles is integral to the prevention of recurrence, and reduction of spread for superficial fungal mycoses. The goal of this review was to examine the available methods of sanitization for footwear and textiles against superficial fungal infections. A systematic literature search of various sanitization devices and methods that could be applied to footwear and textiles using PubMed, Scopus, and MEDLINE was performed. Fifty-four studies were found relevant to the different methodologies, devices, and techniques of sanitization as it pertains to superficial fungal infections of the feet. These included topics of basic sanitization, antifungal and antimicrobial materials, sanitization chemicals and powder, laundering, ultraviolet, ozone, non-thermal plasma, microwave radiation, essential oils, and natural plant extracts. In management of onychomycosis it is necessary to think beyond treatment of the nail, as infections enter through the skin. Those prone to onychomycosis should examine their environment, including surfaces, shoes, and socks, and ensure that proper sanitization is implemented.
Background: Studies of arch height index (AHI), arch rigidity index (ARI), and arch stiffness have primarily focused on healthy populations. Normative values of the aforementioned measurements in a pathologic sample may be useful in identifying relationships between arch structure and pathology.
Methods: AHI was obtained bilaterally at 10% and 90% weightbearing conditions using the AHI measurement system. ARI and arch stiffness were calculated using AHI measurements. Dependent t tests compared right and left, dominant and nondominant, and injured and noninjured limbs. Dominant feet were compared between sexes using independent t tests. Relationships between arch stiffness and subcategories were examined using the coefficient of determination (R2). One-way analyses of variance determined differences between arch structure and number of pathologies or body mass index (BMI).
Results: A total of 110 participants reported one (n = 55), two (n = 38), or three or more (n = 17) pathologies. Plantar fasciitis (n = 31) and hallux valgus (n = 28) were the most common. AHI, ARI, and arch stiffness did not differ between limbs or sexes for any comparisons. Between subgroups of BMI and number of pathologies, BMI influenced AHI (10% weightbearing) and arch stiffness (P < .05). Arch stiffness showed a weak relationship to AHI, where a higher AHI was associated with a stiffer arch (R2 = 0.06).
Conclusions: Normative arch structure values were established in a pathologic sample with a large incidence of plantar fasciitis and hallux valgus. Understanding relationships between arch structure and pathology is helpful for clinicians and researchers.
Background: Adhesions after tendinopathy in individuals who perform physical work and those physically active in middle age are a challenging problem for orthopedic surgeons. We evaluated the effects of human-derivated amniotic membrane on tendon healing, adhesions, angiogenesis, and the inflammatory process.
Methods: Thirty-five rats were divided evenly into five groups, and the left lower extremity was used in this study. No interventions were applied to the control group (group 5). In the other groups, Achilles tendons were partially cut to the midline. Then, primary repair (group 1), amniotic membrane treatment with no repair (group 2), primary repair and amniotic membrane treatment (group 3), or secondary healing with no repair (group 4) was performed.
Results: Use of amniotic membrane in tendon healing resulted in decreased adhesion formation and positive effects on collagen sequencing and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, for the vascular endothelial growth factor evaluation there was no difference among the amniotic membrane repair groups, but there was an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor positivity compared with the control group.
Conclusions: These data show that amniotic membrane treatment can alter biological behavior and induce surface-dependent angiogenesis and can have angiogenetic effects on ischemia and inflammation.
Background: Neurologic screening tests are often used to identify and stratify patients at risk for diabetic foot complications such as infections, ulcers, and amputations. Two of the most commonly cited methods are the 5.07 Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWM) for loss of protective sensation and vibratory sensation testing. The aim of this study was to determine whether combined SWM and the timed vibration test (TVT) more effectively predicts diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) development compared with each test alone.
Methods: An electronic medical record database search was performed restricted to podiatric medical clinic patients with diabetes and DFU ICD-10 diagnosis codes. Of 200 patients who met the criteria, 24 developed DFUs. A statistical analysis was performed comparing the SWM and TVT at various cutoff times and the combined SWM/TVT in their ability to predict DFUs.
Results: Statistical analysis revealed that the TVT cutoff time of less than 4 sec was superior to the other times for prediction of DFUs. The combined SWM/TVT results at less than 4 sec were superior to each test individually: sensitivity, 87.5%; specificity, 84.7%; positive predictive value, 43.8%; and receiver operating characteristics area under the curve, 0.86.
Conclusions: The SWM combined with TVT was shown to be superior compared with either test alone in discriminating DFU risk. In addition, the TVT cutoff time of less than 4 sec proved to have greater diagnostic yield than other times, including 0 sec. This unexpected finding might impact providers relying on the absence of vibration sensation via tuning fork testing as an optimal marker of DFU risk.
Background: The aim of this study is to compare clinical and radiologic outcomes of self-adhesive taping (SAT) or a short- leg cast (SLC) groups with base of fifth metatarsi.
Methods: Functional outcome was assessed by the Visual-Analogue-Scale Foot and Ankle (VAS-FA) at the Emergency and at 2, 4, 6, and 12 weeks. Labour loss, bone union and The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS) at 12 weeks were also assessed.
Results: There was no difference between the SAT group and SLC group in VAS-FA scores at time of injury, 6 and 12 weeks. The SAT group had a significantly higher mean VAS-FA score at the second and fourth weeks of follow-up compared with the SLC group (P = .001 and P = .039, respectively). No correlation was observed between the fracture gap and functional scores for both groups. There was no difference in AOFAS between two groups at 12 weeks. Twenty one patients were unable to work for a mean of 38.2 days during the treatment. 10 patients with the SAT missed 37.5 days and eleven patients with the SLC g missed 40.2 (p: 0.41). The bone union was also achieved for all patients within 12 weeks.
Conclusion: Treatment with SAT in these fractures had satisfactory functional results compared with traditional SLC. Although there were no significant differences in labor loss and use of assistive devices, The VAS-FA score was significantly higher in SAT group than the SLC group at the second and fourth weeks of treatment.
The Cotton osteotomy, as described in 1936 by Frederic Cotton, consisted of a medial cuneiform opening base wedge osteotomy. This Cotton osteotomy served to restore the “triangle of support” of the foot. In his address to the New England Surgical Society, he described this osteotomy as being multipurpose; it can be used for plantarflexion in hallux valgus surgery and has use in hallux rigidus conditions. Since its inception, the procedure has become a popular adjunct to aid in the restoration of the medial column deformity present in pes planus. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the use of the procedure to aid in the correction of deformities involving metatarsus primus elevatus, specifically, hallux valgus and hallux limitus. The advantage of the use of this procedure as opposed to others is that it allows for the preservation and/or restoration of first ray length and the preservation of motion at the medial column. In retrospective review, the authors evaluated seven cases with a 1-year follow-up. In this series of cases, the Cotton osteotomy was performed as an adjunct to common hallux valgus procedures or hallux limitus corrections. Radiographic review was also performed evaluating for initial evidence of radiographic bone-graft healing and patient weightbearing. Although not without its own limitations, the Cotton osteotomy offers several advantages with minimal complications, proving to be a valuable underused resource in the foot and ankle surgeon’s toolkit.
Acral lentiginous melanoma is commonly misdiagnosed, and when detected late it portends a poor prognosis. Acral lentiginous melanoma can be mistaken for verruca, pyogenic granuloma, poroma, an ulcer, or other benign skin conditions. Patients with acral skin growths often present initially to a podiatric physician or their primary care physician. It is at this point when the growth is triaged as benign or potentially malignant. Dermoscopy aids in this decision making. Historically, dermoscopy training has been geared toward dermatologists, but there is increasing recognition of the need for dermoscopy training in primary care and podiatric medicine. Dermoscopy is particularly helpful in pink (amelanotic) growths, which can lack the traditional clinical findings of melanoma. A literature review of acral melanoma and dermoscopy was performed in PubMed. We also describe a case of amelanotic acral melanoma in a 58-year-old with a rapidly enlarging painful mass on her heel. The lesion was initially thought to be a pyogenic granuloma and was treated with debridement (curettage). She was ultimately seen in the dermatology clinic, and the findings under dermoscopy were worrisome for amelanotic melanoma. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. The cancer metastasized, and the patient died less than 2 years later.
Background: Diabetic foot ulceration is a severe complication of diabetes characterized by chronic inflammation and impaired wound healing. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a medical device gel based on adelmidrol + trans-traumatic acid in the healing process of diabetic foot ulcers.
Methods: Thirty-seven diabetic patients with foot ulcers of mild/moderate grade were treated with the gel daily for 4 weeks on the affected area. The following parameters were evaluated at baseline and weekly: 1) wound area, measured by drawing a map of the ulcer and then calculated with photo editing software tools, and 2) clinical appearance of the ulcer, assessed by recording the presence/absence of dry/wet necrosis, infection, fibrin, neoepithelium, exudate, redness, and granulation tissue.
Results: Topical treatment led to progressive healing of diabetic foot ulcers with a significant reduction of the wound area and an improvement in the clinical appearance of the ulcers. No treatment-related adverse events were observed.
Conclusions: The results of this open-label study show the potential benefits of adelmidrol + trans-traumatic acid topical administration to promote reepithelialization of diabetic foot ulcers. Further studies are needed to confirm the observed results.
Background: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are the main cause of hospitalizations and amputations in diabetic patients. Failure of standard foot care is the most important cause of impaired DFU healing. Dakin’s solution (DS) is a promising broad-spectrum bactericidal antiseptic for management of DFUs. Studies investigating the efficacy of using DS on the healing process of DFUs are scarce. Accordingly, this is the first evidence-based, randomized, controlled trial conducted to evaluate the effect of using diluted DS compared with the standard care in the management of infected DFUs.
Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of DS in the management of infected DFUs. Patients were distributed randomly to the control group (DFUs irrigated with normal saline) or the intervention group (DFUs irrigated with 0.1% DS). Patients were followed for at least 24 weeks for healing, reinfection, or amputations. In vitro antimicrobial testing on DS was performed, including determination of its minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration, minimum biofilm eradication concentration, and suspension test.
Results: Replacing normal saline irrigation in DFU standard care with 0.1% DS followed by soaking the ulcer with commercial sodium hypochlorite (0.08%) after patient discharge significantly improved ulcer healing (P < .001) and decreased the number of amputations and hospitalizations (P < .001). The endpoint of death from any cause (risk ratio, 0.13; P = .029) and the amputation rate (risk ratio, 0.27; P < .001) were also significantly reduced. The effect on ulcer closure (OR, 11.9; P < .001) was significantly enhanced in comparison with the control group. Moreover, DS irrigation for inpatients significantly decreased bacterial load (P < .001). The highest values for the in-vitro analysis of DS were as follows: minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 1.44%; minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), 1.44%; minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC), 2.16%; and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC), 2.87%.
Conclusions: Compared with standard care, diluted DS (0.1%) was more effective in the management of infected DFUs. Dakin’s solution (0.1%) irrigation with debridement followed by standard care is a promising method in the management of infected DFUs.