Background: Hallucal sesamoid injuries occur in approximately 5% to 10% of foot and ankle injuries. Most cases can be treated conservatively. However, when nonoperative management fails, surgical intervention is warranted.
Methods: The present case involved a 17-year-old female high school senior who presented to the clinic with right hallux pain. Radiographs were obtained and revealed congenital absence of the fibular sesamoid and evidence of a minimally displaced avulsion fracture involving the proximal medial tibial sesamoid. Treatment was complicated by the congenital absence of the fibular sesamoid and by a high activity level.
Results: After conservative treatment failure, the patient underwent partial excision of her tibial sesamoid. She was followed for 1.5 years after initial presentation to our clinic. The patient was able to return to daily activities; however, she was not able to return to softball competitively due to pain.
Conclusions: We hypothesize she was unable to return to softball because the absence of a sesamoid can decrease push-off strength. We recommend that providers treating athletes educate their patients on the possible loss of strength and take this into account when creating a treatment plan.
Plantar thrombophlebitis is a rare abnormality with few cases reported in the literature. Coexistence with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection increases its relevance. The disease is generally classified as idiopathic, and it is suggested that it is attributed to conditions that lead to hypercoagulability. We present the case of a 68-year-old female patient with thrombosis of the lateral plantar veins and a diagnosis of coronavirus disease of 2019. The plantar vein thrombosis diagnosis was made by means of Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was suspected per clinical information and confirmed with reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique. Treatment was successful using rivaroxaban and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.
Precalcaneal congenital fibrolipomatous hamartomas are rare benign lesions that present in infancy. Lesions typically appear as unilateral or bilateral skin-colored asymptomatic subcutaneous nodules on the precalcaneal plantar heel. Diagnosis is clinical, and operative intervention is not indicated unless lesions are symptomatic. We report two cases of subcutaneous plantar nodules diagnosed as precalcaneal congenital fibrolipomatous hamartomas. The aim is to raise awareness of this rare diagnosis and emphasize its benign nature and conservative management.
Background: Vaporous hyperoxia therapy (VHT), a patented US Food and Drug Administration 510 (k)–cleared technology, is an adjunct therapy used in conjunction with standard wound care (SWC). Vaporous hyperoxia therapy is said to improve the health of wounded tissue by administering a low-frequency, noncontact, nonthermal, ionic, antimicrobial hydrating mist alternating with concentrated topical oxygen therapy.
Methods: Vaporous hyperoxia therapy was used to treat 36 subjects with chronic diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) that were previously treated unsuccessfully with SWC. The average age of DFUs in the study was 11 months and the average size was over 3 cm2. Wounds were Wagner grade 2 or 3 and most commonly on the plantar surface around the midfoot. Treatment consisted of twice-weekly applications of VHT and wound debridement. Subjects were followed to wound closure, 20 weeks, or 40 treatments, whichever came first.
Results: The combination of SWC and VHT in the group that met and maintained compliance throughout the study period achieved an 83% DFU closure rate within a 20-week period. The average time for DFU closure in this study was 9.4 weeks.
Conclusions: Historical analysis of SWC shows a 30.9% healing rate of all wounds, not differentiating chronic wounds. Accordingly, SWC/VHT increases chronic diabetic foot ulcer healing rates by 2.85 times compared with SWC alone. The purpose of this study was two-fold: first, to observe the effect of VHT on healing rates and time to healing in previously nonhealing DFUs; and second, to compare VHT with SWC, topical oxygen therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and ultrasound therapy.
Background: An abnormal hallux interphalangeal angle may be an important risk factor for the recurrence of ingrown toenails.
Methods: In this study, sixty pediatric patients who underwent surgery for an ingrown toenail were evaluated retrospectively in terms of recurrence. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 30 patients (22 male, 8 female) with hallux valgus interphalangeal deformity. Group 2 included 30 patients (20 male, 10 female) without toe deformity.
Results: The mean age was 12.8±1.42 years and 12.5±1.45 years for patients in Group 1 and in Group 2 respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the patient and control group in terms of age and gender (p>0.05). The mean follow-up time was 40 months. We observed recurrence in six patients (20%) in Group 1 and in 2 patients (6.6%) in Group 2.
Conclusion: We concluded that the recurrence of an ingrown toenail may be associated with increased hallux interphalangeal angle in pediatric patients. Factors related to the hallux interphalangeal angle abnormality, which increases the risk of ingrown toenails, also increase the recurrence rate in these patients. Therefore, it is surmised that hallux valgus interphalangeal deformity should be evaluated before surgery, and patients and their families should be informed about the risk of increased recurrence.
Background: Historically, distal fifth metatarsal diaphyseal fractures have been treated with conservative management, with only limited research evaluating surgical treatment of these fractures. This study was performed to compare surgical versus conservative treatment of distal fifth metatarsal diaphyseal fractures in athletes and nonathletes.
Methods: A retrospective review of 53 patients with surgical or conservative treatment of isolated fifth metatarsal diaphyseal fractures was performed. Data recorded included age, sex, tobacco use, diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, time to clinical union, time to radiographic union, athletic versus nonathletic status, time to return to full activity, surgical fixation method, and complications.
Results: Patients treated surgically had a mean clinical union time of 8.2 weeks, radiographic union time of 13.5 weeks, and return to activity time of 12.9 weeks. Patients treated conservatively had a mean clinical union time of 16.3 weeks, radiographic union time of 25.2 weeks, and return to activity time of 20.7 weeks. Delayed unions and nonunions occurred in 27.0% of patients (10 of 37) treated conservatively and in none in the surgical group.
Conclusions: Surgical treatment significantly decreased time to radiographic union, clinical union, and return to activity by an average of 8 weeks compared with conservative treatment. We suggest that surgical treatment of distal fifth metatarsal fractures is a viable option that may significantly decrease the patient’s time to clinical union, radiographic union, and return to activity.
Background: Sinus tarsi syndrome is characterized by permanent pain on the anterolateral side of the ankle due to chronic inflammation characterized by fibrotic tissue remnants and synovitis accumulation after repeated traumatic injuries. Few studies have documented the outcome of injection treatments for sinus tarsi syndrome. We sought to determine the effects of corticosteroid and local anesthetic (CLA), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and ozone injections on sinus tarsi syndrome.
Methods: Sixty patients with sinus tarsi syndrome were randomly divided into three treatment groups: CLA, PRP, and ozone injections. Outcome measures were visual analog scale, American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale (AOFAS), Foot Function Index, and Foot and Ankle Outcome Score before injection compared with 1, 3, and 6 months after injection.
Results: At the end of months 1, 3, and 6 after injection, significant improvements were observed in all three groups compared with baseline (P < .001 for all). At months 1 and 3, improvements in AOFAS scores were similar in the CLA and ozone groups; those in the PRP group were lower (P = .001 and P = .004, respectively). At month 1, improvements in Foot and Ankle Outcome Score were similar in the PRP and ozone groups and higher in the CLA group (P < .001). At 6-month follow-up, there were no significant differences in visual analog scale and Foot Function Index results among the groups (P > .05).
Conclusions: Ozone, CLA, or PRP injections could provide clinically significant functional improvement for at least 6 months in patients with sinus tarsi syndrome.
Background: Ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion is essential to normal gait. Ankle equinus has been implicated in a number of foot and ankle pathologies included Achilles tendonitis, plantar fasciitis, ankle injury, forefoot pain, and foot ulceration. Reliable measurement of ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion, both clinically and in a research setting, is important.
Methods: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the intertester reliability of an innovative device for measuring ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion. A total of 31 (n = 31) participants volunteered to take part in this study. A paired t-test was performed to assess for systematic differences between the mean measures of each rater. Intertester reliability was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and their 95% confidence intervals.
Results: A paired t-test demonstrated that the mean ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion did not significantly differ between raters. The ankle joint ROM mean for rater 1 was 4.65 SD (3.71) and rater 2 was 4.67 SD (3.91). Intertester reliability for the use of the Dorsi-Meter was excellent and demonstrated a very narrow range of error. The ICC (95%CI) was 0.991 (0.980 to 0.995) the SEM (in degrees) was 0.07, the MDC95, in degrees was 0.19 and 95% LOA, degrees was –1.49 to 1.46.
Conclusions: We found the intertester reliability of the Dorsi-Meter to demonstrate higher levels of intertester reliability compared to previous studies investigating other devices. We reported the MDC values to provide an estimate of the smallest amount of change in the ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion that must be achieved to reflect a true change, outside the error of the test. The Dorsi-Meter has been established as an appropriate reliable device to measure ankle joint dorsiflexion for clinicians and researchers with very small minimal detectable change and limits of agreement.
Eccrine poroma is a benign adnexal neoplasm often mistaken for pyogenic granuloma, skin tag, squamous cell carcinoma, and other soft-tissue tumors. We describe a 69-year-old woman with a soft-tissue mass on the lateral aspect of her right hallux that was initially clinically diagnosed as a pyogenic granuloma. Histologic examination proved that this mass was instead an eccrine poroma, the rare benign sweat gland tumor. This case exemplifies the importance of a broad differential diagnosis, especially regarding soft-tissue masses of the lower extremity.