Background: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has multiple clinical variants, and most frequently presents on the lower extremities. Anti–human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy has significantly reduced the incidence of KS. However, KS is still prevalent in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients. This case series analysis aims to reveal the clinical presentations, differential diagnosis, and treatment options of KS on the foot and ankle.
Methods: Eleven cases of KS involving the foot and ankle were retrieved from our patient database, and their clinicopathologic features were analyzed.
Results: All patients were men, aged 29 to 85 years. Two types of KS were found: classic and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome–associated epidemic. The average ages of classic and epidemic KS were 65.7 and 41.8 years, respectively. Clinically, three patients manifested multiple erythematous or deep violaceous, or blue-violaceous macules on either the dorsal or plantar surfaces of both feet. Eight patients showed exophytic, pyogenic granuloma-like nodules on the plantar surface, heels, and toes. Histologically, all KSs had uniform intervening fascicles of elongated spindle cells with slit-like vascular spaces filled with red blood cells and immunoreactivity with human herpesvirus-8. The patients were treated according to HIV infection status. Human immunodeficiency virus–infected patients were treated with anti-HIV therapy after primary surgical excision or biopsy. Human immunodeficiency virus–negative patients were treated with either surgical excision, Mohs surgery, or a combination of surgical excision and local radiotherapy according to individual patient clinical presentation.
Conclusions: Kaposi sarcoma is still prevalent in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients with a variety of clinical presentations. Biopsy, with histologic evaluation, in combination with immunohistochemistry is essential for the differential diagnosis. The patient should be treated according their clinical manifestation, staging, comorbidity, and immune function.
Background: With the advent of percutaneous plating techniques and anatomical locking plates, open plating combined with percutaneous plating may be a feasible option to reduce pilon fracture soft-tissue complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of a combined open and percutaneous plating approach for the treatment of pilon fracture.
Methods: Forty-two consecutive patients treated with a combined open and percutaneous plating approach between March of 2010 and February of 2020 for pilon fracture were reviewed retrospectively. The study population consisted of four female patients and 38 male patients with an average age of 47.5 years (range, 15–71 years). The mean follow-up duration was 25.7 months (range, 12–48 months). The combination of a small anterolateral approach and a small anteromedial approach (or a small direct medial approach) was used in all cases. A small posterolateral approach or a small posteromedial approach was added as necessary.
Results: The average ranges of ankle sagittal motion and hindfoot coronal motion at 1 year postoperatively were 43.3° (range, 30°–60°) and 47.7° (range, 40°–55°), respectively. The mean 1-year postoperative visual analogue scale score and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score were 0.90 (range, 0–4.0) and 94.5 (range, 78–100), respectively. All patients except one achieved bony union. The mean time to union (except in the one case of nonunion) was 4.5 months (range, 3–8 months). Minor wound breakdown occurred in five cases using combined approaches, but these eventually healed with local wound care. There were no major soft-tissue complications and no instances of deep infection.
Conclusions: A combined open and percutaneous plating approach is a feasible option for the treatment of pilon fracture. This combined plating technique involving a combination of a small anterolateral approach and a small anteromedial approach (or a small direct medial approach) yielded satisfactory outcomes without major soft-tissue complications.
Background: Digital deformities represent a common presenting abnormality and target for surgical intervention in podiatric medicine and surgery. The objective of this investigation was to compare the radiographic width of the heads of the lesser digit proximal phalanges.
Methods: One hundred fifty consecutive feet with a diagnosis of digital deformity and performance of weightbearing radiographs were analyzed. The maximum width of the heads of the lesser digit proximal phalanges were recorded from the radiographs using computerized digital software.
Results: The mean ± standard deviation of the head of the second digit proximal phalanx was 9.74 ± 0.87 mm (range, 7.94–11.78 mm); the head of the third digit proximal phalanx, 9.00 ± 0.91 mm (range,7.27–10.94 mm); the head of the fourth digit proximal phalanx, 8.49 ± 1.01 mm (range, 5.57–10.73 mm); and the head of the fifth digit proximal phalanx, 8.67 ± 0.89 mm (range, 6.50–11.75 mm). The width of the head of the proximal phalanx decreased from the second digit to the third digit (P < .001), decreased from the third digit to the fourth digit (P < .001), and then increased from the fourth digit to the fifth digit (P = .032).
Conclusions: The results of this investigation provide evidence in support of an anatomical and structural contribution to digital deformities. The width of the heads of the lesser digit proximal phalanges decreased from the second to the third to the fourth toes, and then subsequently increased with the fifth proximal phalangeal head.
First metatarsophalangeal joint (MPJ) arthritis is a very common form of arthritis seen in the foot. Some signs and symptoms include pain, swelling, decreased passive and active range of motion, difficulty with shoe gear, and so forth. Surgically, options for alleviating symptomatic hallux limitus and arthritis fall into two broad categories: joint sparing and joint sacrificing. In this case study, we present a patient with a bilateral failed total silastic implant of the first MPJ and our proposed revision using an osteochondral bone allograft to fill the deficit left behind from silastic implant removal. The ability for immediate weightbearing and to perform this procedure bilaterally is an advantage to this surgical treatment option compared with other described revision techniques. Postoperatively, the patient has adequate range of motion and no pain when ambulatory. We believe this osteochondral allograft implant may be a viable option for revision first MPJ arthroplasty in select patient populations.