Lymphangioma-like Kaposi's sarcoma (LLKS) is a rare histologic variant of KS. Kaposi's sarcoma is also known as human herpesvirus type 8. The clinical presentation of the LLKS lesion is highly unusual and similar to that of classic KS but with multinodular vascular tumors and lymphedema. We present a 63-year-old native Haitian man with multiple slowly progressive exophytic ulcerated lesions covering more than 60% of his left lower extremity with no systemic involvement. Much confusion surrounded the clinical presentation of these wounds, and we postulated several differential diagnoses. Herein we describe the evaluation, clinical appearance, and progression of LLKS. Due to the rarity of LLKS, treating physicians need to be aware of the clinical presentation and diagnostic criteria of this variant. Despite being incurable, early diagnosis of LLKS can lead to long-term treatment options and a major reduction in symptoms.
The foot is rarely the focus of osteoid osteoma, and only a few of those cases are related to the fifth metatarsal. The present case demonstrates that atypical symptoms with suspicious findings on plain radiographs that are not associated with trauma must be analyzed carefully to determine the nature of the lesion and perform the precise treatment to obtain and sustain the cure. A 29-year-old man presented to the outpatient clinic with a 2-year history of chronic pain in the lateral aspect of his left forefoot. The onset was not related to trauma, surgery, local infection, osteomyelitis, or another entity regarding the proximal fifth metatarsal. The patient noted that the pain was aggravated at night and typically subsided with the use of salicylates or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Initial plain radiographs demonstrated cortical thickening and a lytic lesion at the proximal diaphysis of the fifth metatarsal. Because the pain relief was transient, we suspected an osteoid osteoma lesion, and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging manifested pathognomonic signs of subperiosteal osteoid osteoma. Diagnosis was followed by planning of the surgery that ended the patient's symptoms.
A glomus tumor is an uncommon, predominantly benign, neoplastic lesion that primarily involves a thermoregulatory microvascular apparatus, the glomus body. Although these lesions can occur anywhere in the body, the subungual tissue of the hand represents the most common presentation site. Glomus tumors are not often encountered in the foot. Symptoms traditionally include the classic triad of pain, pressure, and cold sensitivity. This case report describes a variant location for a glomus tumor in the subcuticular tissue adjacent to the medial middle phalanx of the second toe. The nonsubungual location for this presentation should prompt the inclusion of glomus tumor in a digital soft-tissue lesion differential diagnosis. The lesion was excised surgically and was subsequently diagnosed histopathologically as a glomus tumor.
We present the case of a patient with a glomus tumor that was atypical because of its large size and histologic characteristics. It was located in the dorsal-distal zone of the fifth ray of the left foot and was associated with a neuroma under the fifth metatarsal head. Although the pain (of a neurologic type) was attributed to the neuroma, the unknown nature and evolution of the dorsal lesion (glomus tumor) made surgical treatment necessary. Surgery, together with compensating treatment of the functional alterations of the patient's feet (pronation of the subastragalar joint, supination of the forefoot, and fifth metatarsal overload syndrome), resolved the case.
Solitary fibrous tumors are uncommon mesenchymal neoplasms that were initially described as pleural tumors, but in recent years, numerous extrapleural sites have been reported. A solitary fibrous tumor is characterized as a circumscribed, painless mass with a patternless growth pattern, positive CD34 spindle-shaped cells, bcl-2, and dense keloidal collagen with areas of hypercellularity and hypocellularity. This case report describes a 55-year-old male veteran who presented with a rare manifestation of an extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor of the medial right hallux. Microscopic and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with the previously documented characteristics of solitary fibrous tumors. Complete surgical excision of the tumor is the treatment of choice.
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is a type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which is a neoplasm affecting the lymphatic system. Mycosis fungoides is the most common subset of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and is often treated conservatively. This neoplasm is most common in adults older than 60 years and does not regularly manifest in the toes. A case is reported of a 70-year-old man seen for a nonhealing hallux ulceration leading to amputation. Histopathologic examination revealed a rare transformed CD30+ high-grade cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The morbidity of lymphomas is highly dependent on type and grade. Pharmaceutical precision therapies exist that target specific molecular defects or abnormally expressed genes, such as high expression of CD30. This article focuses on treatment protocol and emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis, determination of cell type, and proper referral of atypical dermatologic lesions.
We report two cases of biopsy-confirmed Kyrle disease. Kyrle disease is one of the perforating dermatoses associated with diabetic patients undergoing renal dialysis. In this report, we describe the clinical and histopathologic features, the differential diagnoses, and successful treatment of this unusual disorder.
We report on a rare case of foot and ankle clonus as the initial presentation of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a young patient with no known history of HIV or AIDS and no significant past medical or social history. The patient came to the emergency department with a chief complaint of muscle spasms in his lower extremities and unsteadiness in gait. The patient was diagnosed as having bilateral ankle clonus. Work-up revealed an absolute lymphocyte CD4+ count of 18, an HIV viral load of 1,690,000, and a positive John Cunningham virus polymerase chain reaction in the cerebral spinal fluid, indicating that the patient had progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and AIDS. The diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy should be in the foot and ankle surgeon's differential diagnosis when a patient presents with neurological symptoms in the lower extremities.
Functional hallux limitus is defined as a functional inability of the proximal phalanx of the hallux to extend on the first metatarsal head during gait. The theory concerning this anomaly and the altered gait characteristics that may result appears to have influenced the understanding of sagittal plane podiatric biomechanics. Although there is an increase in the body of evidence to support the proposed gait alterations, a detailed review suggests the need for further work. The aim of this article is to review the functional hallux limitus literature and its reported effects on gait. Furthermore, we explore some of the key and inherent problems with obtaining accurate data for joint motion measurement in the foot. With evidence-based practice now at the forefront of both clinical and academic practice, it is imperative to review the literature that underpins a particular commonly held or historical belief, in order to substantiate and validate subsequent diagnoses and treatments provided in light of this information. This is also true to advance the understanding of a particular anomaly or pathology and to inform so as to facilitate the provision of better care to patients. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(3): 236–243, 2009)