Background: Comparing the dynamic pedobarographic patterns of individuals is common practice in basic and applied research. However, this process is often time-consuming and complex, and commercially available software often lacks powerful visualization and interpretation tools.
Methods: We propose a simple method for displaying pixel-level pedobarographic deviations over time relative to a so-called reference pedobarographic pattern. This novel method contains four distinct automated preprocessing stages: 1) normalization of pedobarographic fields (for foot length and width), 2) temporal normalization, 3) a pixel-level z-score–based calculation, and 4) color coding of the normalized pedobarographic fields. Group and patient-level comparisons were illustrated using an experimental data set including diabetic and nondiabetic patients.
Results: The automated procedure was found to be robust and quantified distinct temporal deviations in pedobarographic fields.
Conclusions: The advantages of the novel method cover several domains, including visualization, interpretation, and education.
Fusion of an interphalangeal joint of a lesser toe is a commonly used procedure for addressing interphalangeal joint deformities such as a hammer or a claw toe. Fusion can be achieved by insertion of an intramedullary Kirschner wire in a retrograde manner. Deviation of the Kirschner wire from the intramedullary canal into the surrounding soft tissues is common. This can render the fusion unstable and can cause painful soft-tissue irritation and early Kirschner wire loosening, resulting in an unstable nonunion with recurrence of deformity. We describe a simple and reproducible technique to assist with optimal intramedullary placement of the Kirschner wire, thereby reducing the risk of complications after interphalangeal joint fusion of a toe.
The soleal sling may be a site of tibial nerve entrapment. Objective diagnosis of this syndrome is difficult with current nerve conduction study techniques, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurosensory testing. Diagnostic ultrasound is ideally suited to visualize the tibial nerve statically and dynamically as it enters the soleal sling, thus making an objective diagnosis of soleal sling impingement much easier.
Magnetic resonance imaging is a commonly ordered examination by many foot and ankle surgeons for ankle pain and suspected peroneal tendon pathologic abnormalities. Magic angle artifact is one of the complexities associated with this imaging modality. Magic angle refers to the increased signal on magnetic resonance images associated with the highly organized collagen fibers in tendons and ligaments when they are orientated at a 55° angle to the main magnetic field. We present several examples from a clinical practice setting using 3T imaging illustrating a substantial reduction in magic angle artifact of the peroneal tendon in the prone plantarflexed position compared with the standard neutral (right angle) position.
Few studies exist investigating surgical hammertoe correction salvage procedures regarding poor outcomes secondary to silastic implant failure. We present a case of a patient who presented to our clinic with a grossly deformed digit after undergoing several silastic implant procedures. The patient wanted to salvage the toe and elected for surgical intervention. Surgical planning consisted of a V-Y skin plasty with interposition of calcaneal autograft. This allowed restoration of anatomic dimensions and function of the patient's digit. We present this operative technique as a viable method of salvaging failed hammertoe correction procedures.
We show an unusual presentation of a schwannoma that was located in the ungual bed of the left great toe. The clinical, color Doppler ultrasound imaging, and histologic findings are shown to illustrate the case. This type of neurogenic tumor and the ultrasound presurgical imaging support should be considered when dealing with subungual tumors of the foot.
The author proposes a novel use of redundant bone resulting from the lateral transposition of the first metatarsal head upon the shaft during a distal osteotomy bunionectomy. The bone, which is usually discarded, may be transposed to the lateral side of the shaft, fixated in place, and used to buttress the metatarsal head, thereby increasing the amount of transpostional shift that can safely occur with stability. By doing this, one could extend the range of intermetatarsal angles suitable to a distal osteotomy.
Functional hallux limitus is a loss of metatarsophalangeal joint extension during the second half of the single-support phase, when the weightbearing foot is in maximal dorsiflexion. Functionally, it constitutes a sagittal plane blockade during gait. As a result, the mechanical support and stability mechanisms of the foot are disrupted, with important consequences during gait. Functional hallux limitus is a frequent, though relatively unknown condition that clinicians may overlook when examining patients with complaints that are not limited to their feet, for they can also present other symptoms such as hip, knee and lower-back pain. The purpose of this article is to present a critical review of the literature on functional hallux limitus and to explain a previously described and simple diagnostic test (flexor hallucis longus stretch test) and a physiotherapeutic manipulation (the Hoover cord maneuver) that recovers the dorsiflexion of the hallux releasing the tenodesis effect at the retrotalar pulley, which according to our clinical experience is the main cause of functional hallux limitus. The latter, to the best of our knowledge, has never been described before. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(3): 220–229, 2010)
Chronic plantar fasciitis is often treated by surgical plantar fasciotomy when conservative treatments have been exhausted. This article presents an ultrasound-guided Weil percutaneous plantar fasciotomy technique used to successfully treat persistent plantar fasciitis in a 48-year-old woman. Five weeks after the procedure, the patient had resumed normal activity, with an excellent clinical outcome. This ultrasound-guided technique can be performed in an office or hospital surgical setting. This technique may be useful to podiatric physicians and surgeons who treat chronic plantar fasciitis. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 100(2): 146–148, 2010)
Triplanar distal osteotomy is a safe procedure for mild-to-moderate hallux valgus deformity. It allows shortening and plantar displacement of the first metatarsal while correcting the intermetatarsal angle. However, complications such as dorsiflexion and excessive shortening of the first metatarsal have been associated with distal osteotomy. We describe a new device, designed by one of the authors (P.R.), that enables precise positioning of the Kirschner guide wire for the osteotomy cuts. (J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 99(6): 536-540, 2009)