Mucormycosis, also known as black fungus, is a rare but aggressive fungal disease with high morbidity and mortality rates that tends to affect patients who are severely immunocompromised. Early recognition of the infection and prompt intervention is critical for treatment success. In recent years the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a surge in the number of cases of mucormycosis. This study aims to report an unfortunate event involving an immunocompromised elderly male with mucormycosis of the foot who expired from sepsis due to COVID-19. It is important to have a high clinical suspicion for mucormycosis when a clinical lesion develops, and to appropriately biopsy the lesion in question, particularly in a context of COVID-19. Raising awareness of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis may allow for early detection of the disease, thus enabling the initiation of rapid treatment, ultimately saving lives.
Acquired hallux varus deformity secondary to postburn contracture is a rare condition. It causes cosmetic disfigurement, pain, and inability to wear a shoe. Soft-tissue procedures and tendon transfers have been described for correction; however, these may require multiple operations and the outcome may be poor. We report a 6-year-old neglected case of hallux varus deformity secondary to burn contracture successfully managed by contracture release with pivotless distraction technique using a biplanar distractor and skin grafting with Z-plasty in the same procedure. The deformity was corrected to a lesser extent and with good functional outcomes. The scar was excised and Z-plasty was performed. The medial joint capsule was released. We used gradual differential distraction with monitoring on sequential radiographs. Pain-free flexion of 45° and extension of 40° were achieved and the patient was able to wear shoes after 4 weeks postoperatively. Hallux varus is a multidimensional deformity. A severe and rigid deformity might not respond well to tendon transfers in a single stage. Our described technique can be used to correct rigid hallux varus deformity with preservation of joint function.
Background: Surgery is a common setting for opioid-naive patients to first be exposed to opioids. Understanding the multimodal analgesic-prescribing habits of podiatric surgeons in the United States may be helpful to refining prescribing protocols. The purpose of this benchmark study was to identify whether certain demographic characteristics of podiatric surgeons were associated with their postoperative multimodal analgesic-prescribing practices.
Methods: We administered a scenario-based, voluntary, anonymous, online questionnaire that consisted of patient scenarios with a unique podiatric surgery followed by a demographics section. We developed multiple logistic regression models to identify associations between prescriber characteristics and the odds of supplementing with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, regional nerve block, and anticonvulsant agent for each scenario. We developed multiple linear regression models to identify the association of multimodal analgesic-prescribing habits and the opioid dosage units prescribed at the time of surgery.
Results: Eight hundred sixty podiatric surgeons completed the survey. Years in practice was a statistically significant variable in multiple scenarios. Compared with those in practice for more than 15 years, podiatric surgeons in practice 5 years or less had increased odds of reporting supplementation with an anticonvulsant agent in scenarios 1 (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–5.18; P = .03), 3 (OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.55–5.68; P = .001), 4 (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.56–4.12; P < .001), and 5 (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.29–3.32; P = .003).
Conclusions: Podiatric surgeons with fewer years in practice had increased odds of supplementing with an anticonvulsant. Approximately one-third of podiatric surgeons reported using some form of a nonopioid analgesic and an opioid in every scenario. The use of multimodal analgesics was associated with a reduction in the number of opioid dosage units prescribed at the time of surgery and may be a reasonable adjunct to current protocols.
There is a long-standing stigma associated with the use of epinephrine in digital nerve blocks (DNBs) over the concern of digital necrosis. We conducted a systematic review to assess the duration of anesthesia, onset of anesthesia, and complications of lidocaine with epinephrine compared with plain lidocaine for DNBs in adults. We searched Medline via Ovid, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov on January 28, 2020. We included randomized controlled trials that examined lidocaine with epinephrine 1:80,000 to 1:1,000,000 (1–12.5 µg/mL) and plain lidocaine for DNBs of fingers or toes in adults. We completed a blinded review of all unique articles, followed by full-text reviews, data extraction, and quality assessment of all eligible trials. Risk of bias was assessed to inform qualitative data analysis. We identified seven studies with a combined 363 adults and 442 DNBs that met the inclusion criteria. All five studies that reported duration of anesthesia established longer duration in the epinephrine-supplemented lidocaine group, with significant increases in three. Two of the three studies that reported the onset of anesthesia demonstrated significant differences. The two studies that reported complications did not have a single case of digital necrosis. In adults, the use of lidocaine with epinephrine 1:80,000 to 1:1,000,000 (1–12.5 µg/mL) for DNB yields a longer duration of anesthetic effect and seems to be as safe as plain lidocaine in healthy adults. Several studies had some concern for bias, and additional studies are warranted.
Background: Digital and ray amputations are common surgical treatments for infected bone and traumatic injuries in the foot. When disarticulated, the exposed articular cartilage can be addressed by either leaving the cartilage cap as a “protective barrier” to infection or by remodeling the exposed bone, removing the cartilage to bleeding bone to better fight infection.
Methods: Our objective is to provide the first study in the foot to determine whether leaving exposed articular cartilage after toe amputation results in more returns to surgery and delayed healing. We performed a review of the electronic database of patients who had undergone toe amputation and/or metatarsal head amputation with the inclusion criteria of Current Procedural Terminology codes 28825, 28820, and 28810. Excluded patients were those who had multiple osteomyelitic bones or more than one-digit amputations because of the difficulty of controlling the extent of infection. Sixty-three procedures were included in the study (group 1, n = 47; group, n = 216).
Results: The time to healing between group 1 (44.0 ± 40.6 days) and group 2 (51.7 ± 48.0 days) was not statistically significant (t test, 0.54392), with reinfection rate being low in both group 1 (8.51%) and group 2 (6.25%).
Conclusions: Our study showed a low reinfection rate in both groups (8.51% vs 6.25%). Age, A1C, and BMI were also similar between both groups. The PAD difference (55.3% vs 81.3%) could have contributed to the time to heal (44.0 vs 51.7 days) but not to infection rate between both groups. Tobacco use did not seem to affect time to heal or infection rate between both groups. From our results, there doesn’t seem to be a difference in infection rates between each group.
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothrombotic state caused by the buildup of platelet factor 4 antibodies with decreased platelet count caused by heparin therapeutic or prophylactic therapy. It is important to detect this complication, especially in critically ill patients and cardiac patients. Detection of HIT can be demonstrated by positive antibodies in a HIT panel. Based on clinical and laboratory findings, heparin use should be discontinued with immediate transition to alternative anticoagulation therapies. Thromboembolic events can be an adverse effect of HIT and can cause local tissue necrosis, especially in the lower extremity. This case is a retrospective medical record review of a 52-year-old man who was initially admitted as an outpatient for coronary artery bypass grafting and mitral valve replacement who developed digital gangrene from HIT. This case emphasizes the rare adverse effects of HIT and the need for timely consultation for surgical treatment of limb ischemia/gangrene.
Osteochondromas are the most common benign bone tumors, with an incidence of 36% to 41% among benign bone tumors. They can be caused by genetics, trauma, and growth defects. The incidence of all osteochondromas in the hands and feet is approximately 10%, and they are extremely rare in the calcaneus. They generally arise from the metaphysis and metaphyseal-diaphyseal region of the long bones. Osteochondromas, which are generally painless, are noted with signs of inflammation in the bursa, vascular and nerve compression, pain caused by joint deterioration, swelling in the subcutaneous tissue, or gait disturbance. The incidence of malignant transformation of solitary osteochondromas is 1%. We present two cases, an 11-year-old male patient and a 32-year-old male patient, diagnosed with osteochondroma in the calcaneus.
Background: Bibliometric studies in the field of orthopedics have increased because of the large volume of the available literature that prevents understanding the general status of the related field. This study aimed to identify and analyze the 100 most-cited articles related to flatfoot to reveal their characteristics and research trends.
Methods: Available literature on the Web of Science database until the end of 2020 were analyzed, and the 100 most-cited articles were determined. The characteristics of articles including publication year, authors, institutions, country, journal, number of pages, number of references, study design, level of evidence, main topic, age group, the specialty of the first author, and availability of funding were extracted and statistically analyzed for any association with the number of citations or citation density.
Results: The average citation number was 63.1 ± 43.8 (range, 30–278). The average citation density was 3.4 ± 1.8 (range, 0.8–12.6). The United States was the leading country with 65 articles, followed by Taiwan and the United Kingdom with five articles from each. Twenty-six papers had Level III evidence and 36 papers had Level IV evidence. Only three studies had Level I evidence and three had Level II evidence. The majority of articles (43 papers) were published in Foot & Ankle International. Citation density was positively correlated with publication year (P < .001) and the number of references (P = .004).
Conclusions: The available data provide general characteristics of the 100 most influential papers about flatfoot. The vast majority of papers had a low level of evidence, indicating the need for higher quality research.
Background: Calcaneal apophysitis is an overuse injury in pediatric patients that causes heel pain and reduction in function. The aim of this study is to explore this condition and offer medical insight into its presentation and symptomatology, along with current treatment options.
Methods: We explored PubMed/Medline for studies involving calcaneal apophysitis in pediatric patients. The search included all articles published from database inception until June 1, 2021. We only included articles published in English. Clinical information and demographics extracted from the reported studies were analyzed and assessed.
Results: Only 28 studies met our criteria, with a total of 1,362 cases. Of the cases reported, 973 affected boys (71.4%). Presentation was bilateral in 589 cases (43.2%) and unilateral in 433 cases (31.8%). Radiographic imaging was used for the diagnosis of 358 cases (26.3%). All reported treatment modalities were conservative, and these included physical therapy and rest, kinesiotherapy and taping, and orthotic devices. A total of 733 cases (53.7%) reported improved outcomes,32 cases (2.3%) reported no improvement, and the remainder of cases did not report prognostic outcomes (44%).
Conclusions: Calcaneal apophysitis is an overuse disease commonly found in the pediatric population. Educating parents and coaches with regard to its symptomatology, etiology, and treatment is essential to diagnose the condition earlier and provide better outcomes.
Background: We compared two different techniques used in medial malleolus fracture. It has been hypothesized that the hook plate technique, which has become widespread in recent years, may have an advantage over cannulated screws.
Methods: Preoperative and postoperative data for medial malleolus fractures operated on between 2010 and 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into those operated on with a hook plate (n = 20) and those operated on with compression screws (n = 20) and were compared in terms of complications, pain, functional recovery, union success, and ankle joint range of motion. Fracture union times were recorded.
Results: Between groups, there were no significant differences in time to fracture union, pain, range of motion, and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score (P = .420). Handling of the implant in a very weak patient in the hook plate group and revision in the cannulated screw group were the differences in complications between groups. The use of hook plates in a patient with medial malleolus fracture with metaphyseal fracture provided significant convenience in osteosynthesis.
Conclusions: Use of hook plates provides serious advantages to the surgeon in medial malleolus fractures with small or fragmented fragments and combined with malleolus metaphyseal fractures. Having a larger implant versus a cannulated screw is seen as a disadvantage, but screwing the implant close to the cortex increases its strength. Therefore, its use should be given priority in patients who are mentally unable to weightbear after surgery. Although hook plate is advantageous compared with cannulated screw in appropriate indications, it can be used safely in all malleolus fractures where cannulated screws are used.