Herpetic whitlow is a viral infection of the fingers or toes caused by the herpes simplex virus. Herpes simplex virus is a common pathogen that causes infections in any cutaneous or mucocutaneous surface, most commonly gingivostomatitis or genital herpes. However, infection of the digits is also infrequently reported. Herpetic whitlow occurs when the virus infects the distal phalanx of the fingers or toes by means of direct inoculation, causing pain, swelling, erythema, and vesicle formation. The proper diagnosis is important because the condition can mimic various other podiatric abnormalities such as paronychia, bacterial cellulitis, or even embolic disease. Improper diagnosis often leads to unnecessary work-up, antibiotic therapy, or even surgical intervention. This case will help illuminate the clinical presentation of herpetic whitlow in an atypical location, and the patient’s subsequent treatment. We present an atypical case of right hallux herpetic whitlow with delayed diagnosis and associated cellulitis. The patient was admitted after seeing multiple providers for a progressive right hallux infection that presented as a mixture of vesicular lesions and apparent cellulitis. His history was positive for biting his fingernails and toenails, and the lesions were noted to be honeycomb-like, with minimal drainage. The lesions were then deroofed and viral cultures were obtained, which were positive for herpes simplex virus type 1, thus confirming a diagnosis of herpetic whitlow. Although he remained afebrile with negative wound cultures during admission, a secondary bacterial infection could not be excluded because of his nail avulsion and surrounding cellulitis. He was discharged on oral antibiotics, antivirals, and wound care recommendations. Herpetic whitlow should be included in the differential diagnosis of pedal digital lesions that appear as vesicular or cellulitic in the pediatric population.
Background: Onychomycosis is the most common nail disease seen in clinical practice. Medication safety, severity of disease, co-morbidities, concomitant medications, patient age, and cost are all important considerations when treating onychomycosis. Since cost may affect treatment decisions, we sought to analyze Medicaid formulary coverage of onychomycosis antifungals.
Methods: Public state Medicaid formularies were searched for coverage of FDA approved onychomycosis medications and off-label oral fluconazole. Total drug cost for a single great toenail was calculated using National Average Drug Acquisition Cost. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to compare coverage and cost, mycological cure rate, and complete cure rate.
Results: Oral terbinafine and off-label fluconazole were widely covered for onychomycosis treatment. There was poor coverage of oral itraconazole and topical ciclopirox, and no coverage of topical efinaconazole and tavaborole without step-edits or prior authorization. There was a significant negative correlation between medication coverage and cost (r = −0.758, p= 0.040). There was no correlation between medication coverage and mycologic (r = 0.548, p = 0.339) and complete (r = 0.768, p = 0.130) cure rates.
Conclusions: There is poor Medicaid coverage of antifungals for the treatment of onychomycosis, with step-edits and prior authorization based on cost rather than treatment safety and efficacy. We recommend involving podiatrists and dermatologists in developing criteria for insurance approval of onychomycosis treatments.
Background: Sinus tarsi syndrome is characterized by permanent pain on the anterolateral side of the ankle. This pain occurs due to chronic inflammation, characterized by fibrotic tissue remnants and synovitis accumulation after repeated traumatic injuries. Few studies have documented the outcome of injection treatments for sinus tarsi syndrome. We sought to determine the effects of corticosteroid and local anesthetic, platelet-rich plasma, and ozone injection on the sinus tarsi syndrome.
Methods: Sixty patients diagnosed with sinus tarsi syndrome were randomly divided into three groups. Patients in the first group received corticosteroid and local anesthetic, patients in the second group received platelet-rich plasma, and patients in the third group were given ozone injections. Outcome measures were Visual Analog Scale (VAS), American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale (AOFAS), Foot Function Index (FFI), and Foot-Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS). Outcome measures were evaluated by comparing pre-intervention and post-injection 1-month, 3-month, and 6-month follow-ups.
Results: At the end of the 1st month, third month, and sixth month after injection, significant improvements were observed in all three groups compared to the baseline (p < .001 for all comparisons). In the 1st and third months, the improvements in AOFAS scores were similar in Groups 1 and 3; those in Group 2 were lower (p = .001 and p = .004, respectively). In the 1st month, the improvements in FAOS scores were similar in Groups 2 and 3; those in Group 1 were higher (p < .001). During the 6-month follow-up period, there was no statistically significant difference in VAS and FFI results between all three groups (p > .05).
Conclusions: Corticosteroid and local anesthetic or platelet-rich plasma or ozone injections could provide clinically significant functional improvement for at least six months in patients with sinus tarsi syndrome.
This case describes delayed treatment of a medial talonavicular dislocation with a shear fracture of the talar head, comminuted posterior talar process fracture, and an intra-articular cuboid fracture with subtle medial displacement of the calcanealcuboid joint and the associated treatment. The injury was sustained in a 35-year-old male following a high-energy motor vehicle accident. Three weeks following the injury, delayed treatment was achieved following an attempted closed reduction under general anesthesia followed by open reduction and percutaneous kirschner wire fixation. After a 12-month follow-up the patient was able to return to work and regular activities pain free without complications. Several associated injuries have been described with isolated talonavicular dislocations. This case reviews the technique and care surrounding this injury pattern and its delayed treatment.
Background: Using high-heeled shoes in daily life affects the stability of walking, body posture, and functionality. So, the present study was aimed to determine the immediate effect of Kinesio-taping (KT) on functionality, static and dynamic balance, exercise capacity, posture in young women using high-heeled shoes.
Methods: Thirty-seven females who were used high-heeled shoes with a mean age of 20.32±1.37 years were divided into two groups: control (n:20) and study group(n:17). The study group’s both limbs were taped medially, laterally, and dorsally with KT; no application was made to the control group. Balance [Techno Body Postural Line], functionality [vertical jump and functional reach test], exercise capacity [6-min walk test], human body posture [New York Posture Rating Chart] was assessed.
Results: Use of high-heeled shoes was 8(7-9) hours/day, 5(3-5) days/week, 3(2-6.5) years in the study group versus 6(6-8) hours/day, 4(2.5-5.75) days/week for 4(2.5-5.75) years in the control group. Statistical significance in functional reach distance (cm) was found within the control (p:0.010) and study groups (p:0.005) but not between the groups (p>0.05). Stabilometric mono pedal right foot elips area (mm2; p:0.006) and perimeter (mm;p:0.009); left foot elips area (mm2;p:0.016), perimeter (mm;p:0.023) and front/backward standard deviation (p:0.018); dynamic balance area gap percentage (%; p:0.030) were significant within the study group. Posture, vertical jump distance, exercise capacity, stabilometric test results, bipedal closed-eye&opened eye results were similar within and between the groups (p>0.05).
Conclusions: Kinesio-taping has no immediate effect on exercise capacity, vertical jump function, posture, and bipedal static balance but can modulate the functional reach function, static mono pedal leg balance, and dynamic equilibrium. Further studies are recommended to investigate the additive effect of KT with high heels and after 45 minutes, 24 hours and 72 hours.
The accessory navicular bone (ANB) is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. Fewer than 1% of ANBs are symptomatic, and most of the symptomatic ANBs are type II ANBs. Avascular necrosis of the type II ANB is an uncommon cause of symptomatic accessory navicular syndrome and also a rarely reported condition in the podiatric medical literature. This rare disorder must be distinguished from other painful conditions of the ANB and should be considered in differential diagnoses. We present a case of avascular necrosis of the type II ANB with sclerosis on radiographs and magnetic resonance images in a 46-year-old woman.
Background: Onychomycosis, or fungal nail infection, is the cause of 50% of onychopathies seen by podiatric physicians. This pathology is accompanied by a negative psychosocial component because of its effect on self-image, which is an essential part of social relations. Conventional pharmacologic treatment based on antifungal agents is lengthy and expensive and has a high abandonment rate and a low cure rate. Therefore, a faster and more efficient solution has been sought using laser treatment. However, studies on the efficacy of this physical method are not conclusive due to the lack of uniformity in the method used to apply the laser and an objective method to measure the results. The aim of this study was to measure the efficacy of laser treatment of onychomycosis by microbiological cure and clinical evolution using the Onychomycosis Severity Index.
Methods: A prospective study with a strictly repetitive protocol of Nd:YAG 1,064-nm laser was applied to 50 participants with onychomycosis in the first toe, following the manufacturer's instructions. The efficacy of the treatment on fungal infection was measured by microbiological culture before and after treatment. The clinical evolution of the nail dystrophy was quantitatively evaluated using the Onychomycosis Severity Index.
Results: The efficacy of Nd:YAG 1,064-nm laser in eliminating fungal infection was 30% (15 participants). However, significant improvement in nail appearance (dystrophy) was observed in 100% of patients (P < .001).
Conclusions: Laser treatment has relatively low efficacy in treating fungal infection but results in an objective improvement in the clinical appearance of the nail in 100% of patients.
Background: Perceived acceptability of barefoot use has largely been ignored in the literature despite its importance to long-term implementation and behavior change. This study aimed to compare the acceptability of undertaking weightbearing physical activities in regular running shoes versus barefoot in habitually shod individuals.
Methods: Healthy young men and women were recruited from the Gold Coast. Participants completed six activities (ie, lunges, walking, jogging, sidestep, vertical jump, and hop) in shod and barefoot conditions then answered questions pertaining to level and source of discomfort, ease of performance, and acceptability. Indices of bone quality were measured from their dominant calcaneus by quantitative ultrasound.
Results: Seventeen healthy male (n = 8) and female (n = 9) university students participated in the study (age, 26.59 ± 7.26 years; body mass index, 23.08 ± 3.58 kg/m2). Men were taller, heavier, and had higher broadband ultrasound attenuation than women (P < .05). For “no” discomfort, “very easy” ease of performance, and a “good amount” or “very good amount” of acceptability, the shod condition demonstrated response rates of 87.25%, 55.88%, and 72.55%, respectively. The barefoot condition demonstrated rates of those responses of 62.75%, 39.22%, and 48.03%, respectively, and reported more ball-of-foot, forefoot, heel, and plantar skin locations as sources of discomfort during activity than in the shod condition. The group vertical jump height was higher barefoot than shod (44.88 ± 8.44 cm and 43.25 ± 8.76 cm, respectively; P < .05), but no difference was seen for the hop. Men jumped and hopped higher than women under both footwear conditions (P < .05).
Conclusions: Participants initiating barefoot weightbearing exercise may experience slightly greater discomfort and less ease of performance in the initial transition from the shod condition, but may perform better in vertical jump. Whether those differences in experience persist over the long term will require longitudinal studies.
Background: Toe deformities are common foot abnormalities in older adults, contributing to functional disability, loss of balance, falls, and pressure lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the custom-made molded silicone toe prop in distributing apical and metatarsophalangeal joint peak plantar pressures and force-time integral in toe deformities, including hammertoes and claw toes, and to observe any difference in pressures between flexible and rigid toe deformities.
Methods: A prospective quasi-experimental pretest/posttest study was conducted including 20 “healthy” older adults with a hammer or claw toe at the second digit. Ten subjects presented with a flexible toe and 10 subjects presented with a rigid toe. A molded silicone toe prop was devised for each participant. Dynamic plantar pressure measurements were taken/recorded before applying the toe prop and after the toe prop was placed under the toe.
Results: Significant differences in mean peak plantar pressure and pressure-time integral were observed at the apex of the second toe in both the flexible and rigid toe deformity when using a molded silicone toe prop. At the metatarsophalangeal joint, pressures were significantly reduced in the rigid toe deformity but not in the flexible toe deformity.
Conclusions: Silicone molded toe props were found to be effective in reducing peak pressure and pressure-time integral on the apex of the second digit in participants with both flexible and rigid claw or hammertoe deformity. Lesser toe deformities may be the cause of several foot complications, including pain on walking, corns, difficulty in wearing footwear, possible ulcerations caused by increased pressure at the apices of the toes, and other comorbidities, that could possibly lead to falls in older adults and thus need to be addressed appropriately.